Volume 9, Issue 1

Market linkages: A Way of Sustaining the Production of Amaranth in Manjolo and Sikalenge Wards of Binga District of Matabeleland North, Zimbabwe
Original Research
Through a market linkages survey of grain and vegetable amaranth farmers, input suppliers, potential market as well as agricultural extension workers, this paper investigated how grain (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) and vegetable amaranth (A. cruentus L.) farmers in Binga District, Matabeleland North can be linked to the market to ensure the sustainable production of grain and vegetable Amaranth in Manjolo and Sikalenge wards of Binga District. Results from the survey indicate that households have a positive perception towards production and consumption of amaranth. The potential markets that is Bulawayo, Hwange and Victoria Falls are very far and the road connectivity is very poor as indicated by the poor state of the roads Supermarkets need registered companies which is a challenge dealing with the fragmented resource poor farmers, hence there is need to arrange farmers into groups. Also formal markets normally need produce that meets certain standards hence the farmers in the two wards face the challenge in selling their produce to the formal market. The study recommends the popularisation of the vegetable by all stakeholders as well as exploration of value addition and beneficiation to tap into international markets.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021, 9(1), 37-41. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-9-1-6
Pub. Date: January 25, 2021
African Rural University Students are Improving Farming Communities’ Livelihoods during Internship Using Community Action Planning in the Albertine Region, Uganda
Original Research
Community Action Planning (CAP) develops capacity of grass-root communities to create the change they desire. African Rural University (ARU) students are deployed in villages for internship program to facilitate change and acquire hands-on experience in conducting CAP with rural farming communities. Using the Epicenter Strategy (ES), ARU internship students (interns) were deployed in 11 Sub Counties in Kagadi, Kibaale and Kakumiro districts for two academic semesters to help villages plan and implement projects using CAP. They used visionary planning approach to generate visions and required actions from the communities. The methods used in CAP included; brainstorming, group discussions, and plenary discussions. The students were mentored in the field by Epicenter Managers (EMs) and supervised on a bi weekly basis by a faculty supervisor and a Traditional Wisdom Specialist (TWS). They (the students) prepared an internship report of all projects initiated and presented the achieved results to the communities, local government and faculty staff before submitting the reports to ARU for assessment. The authors used one report of the internship conducted at Birembo Sub County and prepared this paper. The key results highlighted in this work include; communities initiated own projects in agriculture, health, education, transport and environmental conservation at individual, household, group, community or Sub County levels. The ARU intern student contributed to the effectiveness and efficiency of service delivery at Sub County during the internship. The intern learned and conducted CAP thus enhanced her capacity to cause a democratic bottom up planning process for effective rural transformation. The intern enabled people to learn and acquire skills in the visionary approach to improve their livelihoods. There is need for more CAP sessions to follow-up, monitor the initiated projects or even start new ones.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021, 9(1), 29-36. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-9-1-5
Pub. Date: January 18, 2021
Assessment of Phytochemical Contents and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Five Medicinal Plants with Cosmetic Potential under Three Different Drying Methods
Original Research
Drying allows the quick conservation of medicinal properties of herbal materials. However, the instability of bioactive compounds in medicinal plants which exhibit potent antioxidant activity and wide range of pharmacological properties may indicate a sensitivity to different drying treatments. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effect of shade drying, solar drying and oven drying on bioactive ingredients of five cosmetic potential plant leaves. Leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Senna alata (L.) Roxb., Justicia adhatoda L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. were dried to a constant weight using shade drier at 30-35 ¡ãC, solar drier at 30-40 ¡ãC and oven at 40 ¡ãC. Aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, Folin- Ciocalteau method, and Phosphomolybdate assay were employed to analyse the total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of ethanolic extracts of leaves respectively. All assays were performed in triplicate. Data was analyzed using one -way ANOVA and Tukey¡¯s multiple comparison method. Results showed that significantly higher TFC, TPC and TAC of solar dried leaves of O. tenuiflorum (758.81¡À2.05 mg RE/100g DW, 3.54¡À0.71 mg GAE/100g DW and 22.56¡À0.38 mg AAE/100g DW respectively) and leaves of H. rosa-sinensis (89.72¡À1.38 mg RE/100g DW, 23.9¡À0.06 mg GAE/100g DW and 8.53¡À0.73 mg AAE/100g DW respectively). Solar dried C. asiatica and S. alata leaves showed high TFC and TAC while the TPC was high in oven dried leaves of C. asiatica and shade dried leaves of S. alata respectively. In contrast, J. adhatoda showed the maximum TFC in shade dried samples, the highest TPC in solar dried leaves and the maximum TAC in oven dried leaves. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) among drying methods in terms of antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of J. adhatoda. and antioxidant capacity of C. asiatica. Thus, it can be concluded that, solar drying of medicinal plant materials using solar drier would be an economical, efficient, and effective drying method for preserving bioactive compounds present in leaves of above-mentioned plants.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021, 9(1), 24-28. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-9-1-4
Pub. Date: January 17, 2021
Management of Camel Trypanosomiasis (Surra) among Pastoralists of Isiolo and Marsabit Counties, Kenya
Original Research
Camel trypanosomiasis or Surra is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in camels. The animals are kept under pastoral conditions often characterised by remote settings with poor infrastructure. These characteristics of pastoral areas do not attract either habitation or work of qualified veterinary service providers hence the camel keeping communities are left to play a major role to surmount any constraints that they encounter during animal husbandry. This paper presents management of camel trypanosomiasis, from an emic perspective, among camel keeping communities of Isiolo and Marsabit Counties. The information presented here within was collected in the above areas following field research activities undertaken in 2019. Results indicate that the communities were knowledgeable about the disease and majority rightfully associated camel trypanosomiasis with biting flies, the disease vector. The main symptoms observed for conclusion about surra to be made included loss of body condition, inability to walk long distances, rough hair coat, inability to feed well, reduced milk production in lactating females and abortion. The management of surra and its vectors among the camel keeping communities included use of both formal veterinary products and ethno-medicine. Drug stores (agrovets) were popular sources of veterinary drugs among the communities. The study recommends sensitization of the communities about use of veterinary drugs particularly those targeting camel trypanosomiasis and the disease vectors and, training of agrovet frontline staff to provide the desired information to herders as they buy drugs of their choice for effective disease management.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021, 9(1), 15-23. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-9-1-3
Pub. Date: December 18, 2020
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Building Resilience to Climate Change through the Adoption of Grain and Vegetable Amaranth in Binga District of Matabeleland North, Zimbabwe
Original Research
This paper seeks to popularize and commercialize grain and vegetable amaranth (mowa in Shona, imbuya in IsiNdebele and bboonko in Tonga) by local farmers in Manjolo and Sikalenge wards in Binga District of Matabeleland North Province, Zimbabwe. The paper is based on a baseline survey of randomly selected 74 farmers in the two wards. The paper argues that the introduction of grain and vegetable amaranth in Binga District, will improve nutrition security for humans and livestock. Findings of the study indicate that the majority of the respondents knew the local vegetable amaranth types (various weedy species) but did not know the white version (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) grown also for its grain value. Results also indicate that the weedy species germinate naturally in the District and local communities in the two wards viewed these as a weed and had therefore not bothered about the crop because the knowledge about its potential markets was not known. The paper recommends the adoption of grain and vegetable amaranth in arid areas such as Binga because of its higher nutritional quality and quantity than traditional crops.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021, 9(1), 9-14. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-9-1-2
Pub. Date: November 13, 2020
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Selection of Superior Quality Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (Poaceae) Populations by Means of Quantity and Quality of Essential Oils
Original Research
The main aim of the research was to evaluate essential oil content and composition of four different population samples (P1 - P4) of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle for the superior quality production of essential oil. The essential oil content and composition of different parts of C. nardus populations were determined using steam distillation in Clevenger type apparatus and GC-MS respectively. Findings revealed that essential oil content was significantly higher in leaves of all four populations of C. nardus followed by sheath, flowers and roots. Populations P-3 & P-4 demonstrated higher oil content compared to the four populations tested. The major compounds present in the leaf oil were geraniol, DL - limonene, citronellal, β - citronellol and geranyl acetate were common to all the four populations tested. Moreover, geraniol content was varied from 16%-58% and the highest geraniol content was recorded in the leaf oil of population P-4 (58.87%). Therefore, populations P-3 and P-4 with their greater oil contents and superior oil composition can be recommended for commercial cultivation to rejuvenate essential oil industry.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021, 9(1), 1-8. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-9-1-1
Pub. Date: November 01, 2020
382 Views256 Downloads