Volume 8, Issue 2

Evaluation of the Biostimulant Banzaï’s Effect and the Previous Fertilizer on the Control of Cocoa Black Cherries Disease in N’Gouamoinkro, in the Department of Toumodi, Côte d'Ivoire
Original Research
The overall objective of this study was to compare the effect of the biostimulant Banzaï and fertilizer on black cherries disease. More specifically, the aim was to evaluate the effect of the number of applications of the biostimulant Banzaï and to evaluate the cumulative effect of the previous fertilizer and Banzaï. The experiment was conducted in N'Gouamoinkro in the department of Toumodi. The design consists of a Fischer block with six treatments repeated three times and each treatment contained 20 test cocoa trees. This design was replicated on two sites, one with previous fertilizer (DAE) and the other without previous fertilizer (DSE). Banzaï was applied for three or four consecutive months depending on the treatment at each site. The SUPERCAO fertilizer was applied twice during the experiment. The data collected included the total number of cherries produced and the number of black cherries. The results obtained revealed that at both sites (DAE and DSE), the plots treated with Banzaï had better control the black cherries disease than the control plots. At DAE site, the control of black cherries disease was independent of the number of Banzaï biostimulant and fertilizer applications. At the DSE site, the three applications of Banzaï combined with the SUPERCAO fertilizer had a better control effect than the three applications of Banzaï without fertilizer. The cumulative effect of the previous fertilizer, and the Banzaï, did not have a positive impact on the control of black cherries disease.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(2), 62-69. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-2-7
Pub. Date: May 27, 2020
1430 Views707 Downloads
Response of Selected Tall Hybrid Coffea arabica Varieties to N, P and K Nutrients in Tanzania
Original Research
The growth and yield response of some of TaCRI’s improved tall Coffea arabica hybrids to applied N, P and K were assessed in this work; since, in addition to resistance to CBD and CLR, they are also high yielding (up to 3 t ha-1 against 1.5 t ha-1 of the traditional varieties) and assumed also to be highly nutrient demanding. A split plot RCBD was applied with three replications, five coffee varieties (N39-8, N39-9, N39-11, N39-12 and KP 423 old variety check) as main factors and 4 fertilizer rates (75, 112.5 and 150 g tree-1, together with 37.5g + 10 kg of FYM) as sub factors. Each rate was applied three times per year except FYM which was applied once in two years. Data on canopy width, stem girth, number of bearing primaries, plant height, berry clusters and yields were collected and subjected to ANOVA using Statistica V7 software with means separated using Fisher LSD method at α = 0.05. Variety KP 423 showed a significantly (p<0.05) wider canopy and more berry clusters than the test varieties. N39-8 excelled in number of branches, stem girth and tree height. It also gave higher yield (1894 kg clean coffee ha-1) which was significantly different (p<0.05) from other varieties. Plant height, stem girth and yield response to the fertilizer options showed an asymptotic relationship with the turning point at 112.5 g tree-1. Interaction between Variety N39-8 and 37.5g tree-1 + FYM resulted into significantly higher yield (2436 Kg clean coffee ha-1). It is tentatively concluded that the assumed high nutrient demand for the new varieties is unlikely, at least in the first four years. As such, 37.5g tree-1 of NPK (20:10:10) applied three times per year + 10 kg of FYM per tree applied once in two years; or 75g of NPK (20:10:10) per tree if applied three times per year is enough for the test varieties under this age.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(2), 57-61. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-2-6
Pub. Date: May 26, 2020
879 Views424 Downloads
Towards Expansion of Coffea canephora Production in Tanzania: The Land Suitability Perspective
Original Research
As an effort to generate information that can be used to expand the Robusta coffee production in Tanzania, a study was conducted in six potential districts (Geita, Sengerema, Kibondo/Kakonko, Kasulu/Buhigwe, Uvinza and Mpanda) and two reference districts in Kagera (Muleba and Karagwe/Kyerwa) to assess the quality of land in general and soil fertility in particular. A total of 354 soil samples were taken from 116 survey sites across the study districts and were analyzed for routine soil fertility parameters. Land evaluation (qualitative, parametric method) was done, with climatic data adopted as proxy from nearby weather stations; and other land characteristics (slope, drainage and soil depth) taken from the field. In fertility assessment, soil pH was used to establish the correction factors for available N, P and K (fN, fP and fK). Then relationships were empirically worked out between the correction factors, OC and the amount of total N, available P and exchangeable K to get the total available forms of each in kg ha-1 which were converted to kg-equivalent (kE) per ha and summed up. Spatial interpolation was done using the inverse distance weighting (IDW) algorithm under QGIS 3.2. Geita and Sengerema compared fairly well with the reference districts in land suitability for Robusta. In the soil’s point of view, they showed to be even more fertile than the reference districts. They are hereby recommended as priority areas in Robusta expansion with the Robusta type of choice being Nganda which appears to be specific to the lacustrine ecosystem. The other four districts could constitute Phase two of the expansion. And because they are farther away from Lake Victoria, investors can adopt the Erecta type which appears to be better adapted to a diversity of agro-ecosystems.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(2), 52-56. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-2-5
Pub. Date: May 26, 2020
799 Views357 Downloads
Evaluation of the Nutritional Effect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder on the Growth of Traditional Chickens in Northern Côte d'Ivoire
Original Research
The search for better zootechnical performance is a major stake in the strategy for the development of animal resources in Côte d'Ivoire. The present study aims at improving the nutritional status of traditionally reared poultry using feedstuffs containing Moringa oleifera leaf powder, a plant with appreciable levels of micronutrients. The study was carried out on traditional chicks reared in a total confinement farm from March to June 2019 in the municipality of Korhogo in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Ninety 14-day-old traditional chicks were equitably divided into 3 lots and then fed for 12 weeks on diets based on single maize bran (lot 0 or control) or supplemented with M. oleifera leaf powder at 5% (lot 1) and 10% (lot 2) incorporation rates. The study showed that the incorporation of M. oleifera powder in the ration significantly (p<0.05) improved the live weight of the chickens, with means of 699.81 ± 31.28 g and 633.43 ± 135.44 g for the individuals in lots 1 and 2, respectively, compared to 557.40 ± 100.24 g for the control lot. M. oleifera also improved the average daily gains (ADG) of chickens in lot 1 (7.23 g/d) and lot 2 (6.34 g/d) compared to the control lot (5.80 g/d). This supplementation was beneficial on the feed conversion of the chickens, estimated at 9.55 and 10.82 for 5% and 10% of M. oleifera compared to 11.14 for the feed without the supplement. The incorporation of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in growth-type feeds, especially at the 5 % level, could therefore be recommended in local traditional chicken farming.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(2), 45-51. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-2-4
Pub. Date: May 26, 2020
838 Views301 Downloads
Selection of Superior Quality Annona Species by Means of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity
Original Research
Present study evaluated different parts of (leaves, seeds, bark, roots, ripen fruits, unripen fruits) 6 species of Annona (Annona cherimola, Annona muricata L., Annona reticulata L., Annona squamosa L (green and red varieties) and Annona glabra L. by means of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in order to select superior quality species of Annona for commercial cultivation. TAC, TPC and TFC were determined using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. It was observed that all tested parts of all tested species contained appreciable amount of TAC, TPC and TFC. Significantly higher TPC were recorded in roots of custard apple (82.08±0.74a mg GAE/g DW) followed by roots of soursop (73.10±0.72b mg GAE/g DW), leaves of soursop (55.18±0.18a mg GAE/g DW) respectively. It was interesting to see that the highest TAC was observed in root extracts of soursop (194.98 mg TE/g DW followed by bark extracts of pond apple (134.37 mg TE/g DW) and leaf extracts of soursop (122.67 mg TE/g DW respectively. Total flavonoid content of leaf extracts of six different species were varied as soursops>sugar apple R>pond apple>sugar apple G> custard apple >cherimoya respectively. Strong positive correlations were observed between TAC values and TPCs of leaves, seeds, barks and roots (R² = 0.78; p<0.001). Based on the results of bioactive molecules present in different species and their parts, it could be concluded that soursop and custard apple could be recommended as superior quality Annona species for commercial cultivation.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(2), 39-44. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-2-3
Pub. Date: May 21, 2020
1260 Views650 Downloads
Underutilized Natural Gum and Resin Resources in Ethiopia for Future Directions and Commercial Utilization
Original Research
The drylands of Ethiopia are well known for their natural gum and resin producing tree and shrub species such as Acacia, Boswellia, Commiphora and Sterculia. The production and trade volumes of gums and resins in the country showed a declining trend since 2010. The present review work is focused on availability of alternative underutilized tree and shrub species to indicate the diverse gum and resin market opportunities. Several Sub-Saharan African countries are producing gum and resin products from diversified species. Gum arabic is collected from Acacia senegal (L) Willd, Acacia seyal DEL, and Acacia polyacantha Willd species. Three countries namely Sudan, Nigeria, Chad contribute about 97% to the international market, while Ethiopia's contribution is 0.9%. World demand for karaya gum from Sterculia setigera DEL is about 7,000 tonne and in Africa, Senegal is the leading exporter. Despite the huge resources of A. senegal, A. seyal and A. polyacantha, Ethiopia producing very low quantity, and gum is collected from natural oozes of trunks or branches. S. setigera is also found in the country, although gum karaya is not yet under production. South and south eastern parts of Ethiopia hosts abundant species of Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora. Gum-resin products are collected from natural exudates by herdsmen, women and children while herding and doing other activities, indicating its adverse effects on quality and quantity. Very small proportions of Myrrh and gum opopanax enter the local market. Other constraints are, lack of appropriate institutions, infrastructure, tapping technologies and market information. Therefore, appropriate policy formulation, research and development interventions, are recommended for supporting sustainable management, production and marketing of products.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(2), 32-38. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-2-2
Pub. Date: May 15, 2020
918 Views441 Downloads
Soil fertility Evaluation for the Potential Coffee Areas in Morogoro and Mvomero Districts, Eastern Tanzania
Original Research
Soil fertility evaluation for Arabica and Robusta coffee was conducted in Morogoro and Mvomero districts, representing the historical, yet insignificant, Eastern coffee area. Field characteristics were recorded and soil samples collected from 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm depths in nine wards per district. Samples were analyzed for soil texture, pH-water, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, CEC, exchangeable bases and extractable Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Qualitative (simple limitation), quantitative evaluation of the supply potential of N, P and K, spatial and multivariate statistical analysis were used. Over 70% of survey sites were moderately fertile, implying that coffee production is viable. Mvomero was lower than Morogoro in both pH and OC; hence lower in total available NPK. Soil pH, OC, available P, Fe, Mg/K, TEB and K/TEB explained 32.05% of the total variability, with CEC, BS and ESP explaining 19.00%. Four ward clusters were identified, with clusters best expressed by micronutrients (Cu and Fe), followed by total N, Na, K/TEB, Zn, Mg and K. Soil fertility limitations were low pH, low Ca and K, low OC, low N and very low micronutrient levels. District councils should devise coffee development programmes, taking cognizance of the intervention strategies suggested in this work.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(2), 23-31. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-2-1
Pub. Date: April 24, 2020
1513 Views695 Downloads