Volume 7, Issue 4

Testicular Characteristics and Daily Sperm Production of Male Rabbits Placed on Varying Levels of Pawpaw Seed (Carica Papaya) Meal
Original Research
In a 12 weeks feeding trial, forty weaned mixed breed buck rabbits with average weight of 691g were used to assess the testicular characteristics and daily sperm production of rabbit fed pawpaw seed meal. Pawpaw seed meal was included at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% in the experimental diet. The animals were randomly and equally allotted to the diets and housed individually. At the end of the feeding trial 6 animals per treatment were sacrificed and their testes dissected. The testes were weighed and processed. Right testis volume, left testis volume, left testis density and relative testes weight were not significantly different (p>0.05). However, right testis weight, left testis weight, right testis density, paired testes weight and daily sperm production were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by the treatment. The result showed that animals on 20%PSM compete favourably with the animals on control diet (0%PSM) in terms of right testis weight, left testis weight, right testis density and daily sperm production. This investigation suggests that inclusion of pawpaw seed meal up to 20% in rabbit diet had no deleterious effect on testicular and daily sperm production of rabbits.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(4), 158-160. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-4-6
Pub. Date: December 05, 2019
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Plantation Forests in Amhara Region: Challenges and Best Measures for Future Improvements
Original Research
The total area of plantation forests in Ethiopia is estimated at 972,000 ha. Species wise, eucalyptus dominates the current plantation forests, covering more than 90%. The total area of plantation forests in Amhara region is estimated at 684,000 ha, of which Industrial Plantations are 44, 600 ha and Non-industrial Small-scale Private Plantations are 639,400 ha. The application of appropriate silvicultural practice during and after planting of different plantation species is not well developed in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to identify effective plantation practices in the Amhara National Regional State that can be scaled out in other similar agro ecological areas of the country. The study was conducted between September 2013 and October 2015 in ANRS in Fagta Lekoma District of Awi zone and Lay Gayent District of South Gonder Zone. Multistage sampling technique was used to select sample households. The best example of smallholder plantation practices are Acacia decurrens based smallholder plantations in Fagita Lekoma District and E. globulus and E. camaldulensis based plantation in Lay Gayent District and Mecha District, respectively. Adaptability, growth rate, compatibility to the other land uses and suitability to the objective of tree planting were considered in selecting the tree species for planting. Silvicultural management of the plantation especially those of spacing, planting techniques and tending operations were considered in identifying the best plantation practices. In regard to ecological impacts of plantation 135 respondents (75.4%) agreed that plantation of E. camaldulensis have adverse effect on the soil, crop productivity of the adjacent farm land and water resources. Among recognized silvicultural management gaps, narrow spacing has been evaluated as the major constraint by regional experts and farmers. Economic issues like lack of adequate value addition, lack of assortment and product diversification has been identified as significantly important challenges. Proper implementation of best plantation management practices in Ethiopian plantation programs will significantly improve the forest cover of the country and increase the contribution of the forestry sector to the local and national economies.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(4), 149-157. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-4-5
Pub. Date: November 19, 2019
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Change in Soil Fertility and Beetroot Productivity after Single and Mixed Application of Basalt Dust, Poultry Manure and NPK 20-10-10 in Nkwen (Cameroon Volcanic Line)
Original Research
This work aims to compare the effects of basalt dust, poultry manure and NPK 20-10-10, single and combined, on the growth and yield of beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Thus, fieldwork was preceded by land evaluation and standard laboratory soil analysis. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) on a 172.5 m2 experimental plot was used to investigate the effects of nine treatments: control soil (T0), T1 (5 tons ha-1basalt dust), T2 (0.7 tons ha-1 NPK 20-10-10), T3(20 tons ha-1 poultry manure), T4 (2.5 tons ha-1 basalt dust), T5 (0.35 tons ha-1 NPK 20-10-10 + 10 tons ha-1 poultry manure), T6 (10 tons ha-1poultry manure + 2.5 tons ha-1 basalt dust), T7(0.35 tons ha-1 NPK 20-10-10 + 2.5 tons ha-1basalt dust) and T8 (0.25 tons ha-1 NPK 20-10-10 + 6.5 tons ha-1 poultry manure + 2.5 tons ha-1basalt dust). The main results showed that land limitation was severe (N1), due to soil acidity, and potentially unsuitable for beetroot cultivation. The control (T0) was acidic (pH=4.8) but treatment raised the pH to 6.56, 6.76 and 4.91 for basalt dust, poultry manure and NPK 20-10-10, respectively. The yields were recorded in decreasing order as T3>T8> T6>T5>T7>T2>T4>T1>T0. T1 had the highest capacity to provide nutrients to soils and to balance nutrient availability to plants. T3alone boosted immediate productivity by improving soil acidity. The most economic treatment was T8suggesting a reduction in chemical fertilizer input and importation and popularization of local natural fertilizers.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(4), 137-148. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-4-4
Pub. Date: November 18, 2019
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Use of Halosarcia indica (Willd.) Paul G. Wilson Extracts for Low Salted Dried Fish Production
Original Research
Halosarcia indica(Willd.) Paul G. Wilson (Chenopodiaceae) is an underutilized, succulent herb freely distributed in coastal areas. Although the plant is rarely used for human consumption, there is scattered information of its usage as a natural salt. Therefore, the present study was aimed to incorporate H. indica as a source of natural salt for the production of herbal salted dried fish to develop a cottage industry in coastal areas of Sri Lanka. Well matured, authenticated, H. indicaplants were harvested and cleaned well. Then materials were ground and extracts were freeze-dried. Authenticated Oreochromis niloticusfish were harvested from an institutional research pond. Cleaned and sliced samples were treated with 10% of herbal extract and 10% common salt before drying. The treated fish were oven dried at 60±5C for 14 hours. Dried fish were screened for their physical, chemical and biological quality parameters using standard protocols. Sensory attributes were evaluated using institutional sensory panel. Results revealed that dried fish prepared with herbal salt exhibited the significantly higher TPC (3.44±0.19), TAC (2.77±0.097), rehydration, fiber, protein, ash and fat contents. Also, HSDF (Herbal salted dried fish) demonstrated low microbial count, water activity and higher consumer preference for almost all organoleptic attributes. Since herbal salted dried fish possess all favorable quality characteristics and higher consumer preference, H. indicahas potential use for value added dried fish production in cottage industries along coastal areas of Sri Lanka.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(4), 132-136. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-4-3
Pub. Date: November 11, 2019
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Antifungal Potential of Curcuma longa(Tumeric) and Zingiber officinale(Ginger) against Alternaria alternataInfecting Spinach in Kenya
Original Research
Spinach diseases caused by Alternaria spp. are one of the most significant devastating pathogens to spinach in Kenya and worldwide. Alternaria alternata has been associated with great losses in spinach both in total biomass yield and leaf quality. The pathogen has been traditionally controlled using synthetic fungicides which are expensive and harmful to both humans and environment. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the extracts of two plants; Curcuma longa(Tumeric) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) against Alternaria alternata both in in vitroand in vivo conditions. Absolute ethanol, water, ethyl acetate and methanol were the solvents used in extraction of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale rhizome extracts. Decoctions were screened for antimycotic potential using the poisoned food technique. Results from this study revealed that Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinaleextracts had varying degree of antifungal activity against the Alternaria alternatadepending on the solvent used for the extraction and the concentration. Methanolic extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinaledemonstrated the highest antifungal activity which was significant (p≤0.05) against the Alternaria alternata compared to ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts with percentage inhibition of 64% and 57%, respectively at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. At the concentration of 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml the percent inhibition on the fungal growth was not significant (p≤0.05) from the 8thday for all the solvents in both turmeric and ginger. Foliar spray with the extracts was found to be effective in lowering disease severity. Curcuma longadisplayed the highest percent decrease index in comparison to Zingiber officinale with percent disease decrease index of 57.70% and 53.84%, respectively. The findings indicated methanol as the most suitable solvent for descending in the use of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinaleextracts in controlling Alternaria alternataassociated with leaf spot of spinach in Kenya.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(4), 124-131. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-4-2
Pub. Date: October 28, 2019
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Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Stocks from Fallow of Forage Legumes on Alfisols of Guinea Savanna Nigeria
Original Research
The aim of this study was to assess soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stocks from fallow of two forage legumes: Centrosema pascuorum (Cp) and Macrotyloma uniflorum (Mu) on Alfisols of Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. The study was conducted at the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) experimental field Samaru Zaria, Nigeria (2008 to 2009). Treatment consisted of 3 plots (Cp planted, Mu planted, and control - natural vegetation regrowth). Plot size was 5 m * 3 m = 15 m2replicated three times for each treatment. Pre-experimental composite soil samples were taken with an auger at 0-15 depth. The soil samples collected were air-dried, grounded, sieved with a 2 mm sieve, and the less than 2 mm fraction was analysed for C, N, and P. The results of the analysis of soil organic C, total N, and available P were 6.1 gkg-1, 0.53 gkg-1, and 8.75 mgkg-1respectively. Soil pH was 5.9. The plots were left fallow for one year and again soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth and analysed. The results showed that Cp significantly improved and had higher soil available P (13.74 mgkg-1) after one year followed by Mu (7.68 mgkg-1) and control (4.6 mgkg-1). On the other hand, the control plots significantly had highest soil organic C (5.9 gkg-1) compared to 5.2 and 3.7 gkg-1 from Cp and Mu. Similarly, higher total N (2.9 gkg-1) was recorded from control plots compared to 1.4 and 0.5 gkg-1 from Mu and Cp respectively. Results from this study indicate that one year fallow of cultivated Cp has potential to improve soil available P compared to Mu and natural vegetation regrowth. In terms of plant nutrient uptake, the N and P content of Mu was the highest (4.28 and 2.65 % respectively). The natural vegetation from the control plots had the lowest (1.95 %) N concentration. There was no significant difference in the P content of the natural vegetation from the control plots and Cp (1.92 and 1.84 % respectively). Fallow periods of more than a year of cultivated Centrosema pascuorum and Macrotyloma uniflorum or their incorporation into soils are suggested for further studies.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(4), 119-123. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-4-1
Pub. Date: September 27, 2019
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