Volume 7, Issue 1

Exposure and Health Risk Assessment of Farmers to DDT during Khat Production in Chiro Woreda, West Hararghe Zone: Ethiopia
Original Research
This research work assesses exposure and health risk of farmers using DDT during Khat production and farmer’s knowledge and perception towards the toxicity of pesticides sprayed on Khat. Personal interviews were completed with a random and purposive sample of 85 farmers, 5 health workers/officers/ and 5 agricultural workers /officers/. The observed study shows there is no any personal protective device (PPD) in the study area at all, most farmers in the study area have no access to technical information on proper use of pesticides. In this study, thus, assessment of possible health risks of using DDT and farmers’ perception towards toxicity of pesticides used on Khat was undertaken. Results of interviews and questionnaires showed that majority of farmers in Chiro Woreda use DDT and other unknown pesticides to grow their Khat and majority of them mix DDT and other pesticides, especially malathion. Most of the farmers are illiterate and could not read and understand instruction on pesticides packages. Most of the interviewed farmers are chewers of Khat and have more than 15 years experience in spraying pesticides on Khat. Local markets, pesticides imported through smuggling, local health and agricultural bureaus were seen to be sources of DDT and other pesticides used on Khat. Most of the farmers have misperception on the toxicity of pesticides used on Khat. The farmers that sprayed Khat have also developed new health symptoms that were not known before the start of using DDT and other pesticides. The main purposes why farmers use pesticides on Khat are to control Khat pests that hinder its normal growth. Farmers that produce Khat with more chemical pesticides, in particular, experience acute adverse effects on the digestive system such as stomach irritation, bulging of belly, loss of appetite, and chronic adverse health effects including mouth dryness, headaches, and other related problems. Farmers also who chew homemade Khat on which they sprayed chemical pesticides by themselves may have the highest possible health hazards. It is concluded that chewing Khat grown with chemical pesticides causes considerable adverse health effects in human beings as well as to consuming animals. However, majority of the farmers believe that advantages of using DDT and other pesticides on Khat overweighed its effects. In general, there is no any satisfactory intervention to tackle these problems. The main objective of this study was to investigate exposure and possible health risks of farmers using DDT and other pesticides on Khat (Catha edulis), and to assesses the knowledge, perception and awareness of farmers towards toxicity of pesticides used during Khat production.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(1), 29-35. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-1-6
Pub. Date: January 26, 2019
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Ideal Agricultural Agent as a Logical Solution and Investment
Original Research
Future agricultural quality is the result of efforts made by agricultural observers at the present time. An expectation of optimal future agricultural quality is a challenge for observers of agriculture in Saudi Arabia, specifically as a material for thought for agricultural extension workers. The role of agricultural extension agents is the spearhead sharpening the achievement of future agricultural goals. Therefore, the quality of agricultural extension agents becomes the starting point for achieving these objectives. Some of the competencies that must be possessed by agricultural extension workers so that they are worthy of being declared as ideal counselors who are able to view the future as a benchmark for developing agricultural concepts at this time, namely motive, innate competency, self-concept, knowledge and skills. Through the mastery of all these competencies, the agricultural instructor deserves to be declared as the ideal agricultural extension agent as a solution and investment in the future in a logical manner.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(1), 25-28. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-1-5
Pub. Date: January 25, 2019
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Quality and Nutritive Value of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) as Affected by Production Environment and Genotype
Special Issue
Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended where the climate is marginally suitable, these marginal environments’ were affect the quality aspects of faba bean. An experiment was conducted for three consecutive seasons (2005/2006, 2006/2007 and 2007/2008), at five environments representing different soil types. The objective was to study the effect of these environments on cookability (quality) of Faba bean with consideration to the prevailing temperature and relative humidity of these environments. The environments were: (E1): Al Salama location to represent lower terrace soil (Riverian); (E2): Hudeiba Research Station Farm to represent middle terrace soil (Kuru); (E3): Almatara location; to represent high terrace soil; (E4): Wad Medani location= Gazira Research Station Farm to represent central clay plain soil (Vertisols); (E5): Ed Damer Food Security Scheme location to present high terrace soil. Six Faba bean lines were selected: Small-medium seeded (H.72/7/1, Daba.1/1, Z B F.1/1, C.86, Triple White and Large seeded Turki. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that soil types had significant effects on cookability aspect. The high cookability seed of faba bean under all production environments was recorded from lower terrace soil (Riverian) in E1 (Al Salama location) and the poor cookability seeds of faba bean were recorded from the high terrace soils in E3 (Almatara location) and E5 (Ed Damer) Food Security Scheme). The new production area E4(Wad Medani) location) produced a moderate cookabilityseed.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(1), 21-24. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-1-4
Pub. Date: January 22, 2019
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Effect of Cowpea Hay Supplementation on Milk Production Performances of Local Crossbred Cattle (Bos indicus X Bos taurus) in Extensive System in Burkina Faso
Original Research
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cowpea hay supplementation on milk production parameters. In each of the five farms involved, four lactating cows were selected, and assigned into two groups: group1 was supplemented after grazing with 3 kg of cowpea hay, while group 2 was the control group with no feed supplementation. The experiment lasted three months. The body condition scores (BCS) of the cows and the live weight of the calves were measured at the beginning and at the end of the test. Daily feed intake were recorded, and milk samples were collected. Mean BCS of 2.90 ± 0.20 and 3.15 ± 0.22 were recorded for group 1 at the beginning and the end of the test, respectively; while these values were 3.0 ± 0.20 and 3.10 ± 0.22 for group 2 (controls) (P > 0.05). Average live weights of the calves at the end of the test were 49.3 ± 6.30 and 43.0 ± 6.30, respectively, for group 1 and 2 (P < 0.05). Mean daily consumption of the feed supplement was 2.25 ± 0.40 kg / cow, and daily milk production was 1378 ± 496 ml / cow (group 1), against daily milk production of 1079 ± 496 ml / cow (group 2) (P > 0.05). Crude fat, crude protein, lactose, dry matter and ash levels were 3.25 ± 0.22%, 3.35 ± 0.33%, 5.17 ± 0.37%, 12.4 ± 1.78% and 9.21 ± 1.58%, respectively for group 1, against 2.95% ± 0.22, 3.31 ± 0.33%, 5.12 ± 0.37% 12.0 ± 1.78% and 10.2 ± 1.58% respectively for group 2 (P > 0,05). A profit of about 22 FCFA per liter was found with the supplemented group compared to the control group. It was concluded that milk production and calves growth performances can be increased economically by using cowpea hay as feed supplement for lactating cows in extensive system.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(1), 14-20. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-1-3
Pub. Date: January 13, 2019
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The Critical Period for Thinning Carrot (Daucus carota L.)
Original Research
Field experiment was carried out at Impala Research station, in Botswana, aiming at investigating critical period for thinning of carrot (Daucus carota L.). The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized block design (CRBD), replicated three times and was repeated four times at different sowing dates. Seeds were sown at the same rate (3 kg ha-1) in all plots to obtain an equal plant population at initial stage, thereafter thinned at different times (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th weeks after emergence) to 30 cm between rows and 5 cm between intra rows to maintain constant population across the experiment. Days to maturity were constant from sowing to harvest in all the sowing dates. Plant height and yield significantly declined as thinning time was delayed. Number of leaves developed, root diameter and root length were not influenced by the thinning time. Vegetative growth and yield declined with the late sown experiments. It can be concluded that thinning time significantly increase plant height and yield, especially at earlier stages and carrot yield best when sown earlier in the season.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(1), 8-13. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-1-2
Pub. Date: January 10, 2019
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Comparative Evaluation of the Cooking Time, Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Meals Prepared with Whole, Semi-polished and Polished Rice Grains
Original Research
Encouraging the consumption of whole grains may be a feasible and easy measure to combat non-communicable diseases which are the major causes of death globally. This experimental study was therefore designed to compare the cooking time, nutritional and sensory properties of meals prepared with whole, semi-polished and polished rice grains with the view of encouraging the consumption of whole rice gains in place of the refined ones. White rice, curried rice and jollof rice were prepared with whole, semi-polished and polished rice grains using basic ingredients of standard recipes. Cooking time, nutritional and sensory evaluation were determined using appropriate standard procedures. Mean data were compared using Analysis of Variance at p≤0.05. For whole rice cooking time (minutes) for white, curried and jollof rice was: 30.33, 29.33 and 25.33; for semi-polished rice these was: 31.33, 32.00 and 38.00 while for polished rice it was: 32.33, 36.00 and 30.33 respectively. The proximate composition (% in DWB) of white rice prepared with whole, semi-polished and polished rice grains were as follows: Protein (9.80, 9.37, 8.70); Fat (4.19, 2.22, 0.78); Ash (3.20, 2.22, 2.01); Crude fibre (4.80, 1.95, 1.56) and Carbohydrate (78.01, 84.24, 86.95). White rice prepared with whole rice and semi-polished rice was significantly higher (p≤0.05) than polished rice in niacin and riboflavin but surprisingly, the meal from polished rice was highest in thiamine content. White rice, curried rice and jollof rice prepared with whole rice grains were comparable in flavour, texture, taste aroma and overall acceptability with those prepared with semi-polished and polished rice, however, there is need to improve on the colour and appearance as well as construction of rice milling machine that can dehusk only. The cooking time and sensory properties of whole rice dishes were comparable with that of the refined ones while the nutritive value was notably higher. Household and commercial preparation and consumption of whole rice dishes is hereby encouraged but the major militating factor, which is the unavailability of milling machine that can only dehusk, is a factor of utmost necessary concern.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(1), 1-7. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-1-1
Pub. Date: January 04, 2019
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