Volume 6, Issue 3

Reaction of Cowpea Genotypes to Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonascampestrispv. Vignicola) Disease in Ghana
Original Research
The productivity of cowpea is constrained by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors. Insects, fungi, bacteria, parasitic plants and nematodes are the major biotic stresses, and drought, salinity and heat are among the major environmental limitations to cowpea productivity. Among the diseases, bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonasaxonopodispv. Vignicola (Burkholder) Dye is one of the diseases posing a serious challenge to cowpea production in Ghana and the rest of Africa where the crop is usually cultivated. The objective of the study was to identify Cowpea genotype that are resistant to bacterial blight. Thirty-one cowpea lines collected from research institutions (SARI-Nyankpala, PGRRI-Bunso, IITA-Kano-Nigeria and CRI-Kumasi) composed of landraces and released varieties were used for the trial. These were grown in polybags of 20 plants per accession in a Completely Randomize Design with four replications. The plants were inoculated with X. vignicla cultures when the plants were three weeks old. Results indicate that 64.5% of the plant total was moderately resistant, 22.6% were resistant and 12.9% were susceptible. The genotypes GH4025 and GH2347 were found to be promising resistant genotypes. The most pathogenic of all the strains was Ohawu 1 followed by Nyankpala 1 and CRI 2 respectively. Thermos resistant genotypes GH4025, GH4327 and IT97K-1069-6.exhibited higher level of resistance in all the three strains and the genotypes TVu7778, GH7889, IT84S-2246-4 and GH7225 exhibited similar levels of susceptibility to the three strains of the bacterial blight isolates. However, bacterial blight symptoms were observed on leaves inoculated with 108cfu g-1bacterial suspensions.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(3), 105-112. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-3-5
Pub. Date: October 31, 2018
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Eco-Zero Weeding - A Wow Incredible Scientific Innovation for Altering Things around Us and India Inaction
Original Research
Weeds grow everywhere and create crop loss, involve huge expenditure in weeding, produ allergic pollens and unpalatable fodder, forages and cause green house gas emission in environment around us. Several high tech weeding machines including robotics were developed and focused as wonderful development and marketing strategy created to make huge profit in the global business by many developed countries forming company consortium to harness the benefits from such unaffordable technologies. Further, these weeding machine based practices are not suitable where sowing is done by hand broadcasting, as is prevalent in eastern India and many countries of the world, as well as under aberrant weather condition making field condition not walk able or too dry condition for any field operation., Hence, problem of weed management and global warming are not likely to get solved by such technical developments. It requires some miracle like discovery to stand as panacea scientific solution. The present study reports an innovative research on science of ecology that becomes a non monetary panacea total solution in agriculture and stands as method of weed management superb over any known mechanical-robotic weeder getting claimed as breakthrough on weeding works. This innovation was submitted to Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi over a year ago i.e. on August 17, 2017, as fulfillment of a challenge on weed management, but it is pending due to inaction. The new science based discovery not only overcomes weed control under all conditions, including the broad casting situations, as well as aberrant weather condition, but eco zero weeding fixes atmospheric natural nitrogen that enhances unimaginable high yield of crops. This discovery equips world with intellectual property of immense value that enable world acquire huge economic gain and overcome climate change and foster environment protection.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(3), 94-104. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-3-4
Pub. Date: October 26, 2018
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Mitigation by Aqueous Extract of Celastrus Paniculatus Seeds against Monosodium Glutamate Induced Impairments in Human Neuronal cells IMR-32
Original Research
The free radicals are considered as primary culprit for many multifactorial diseases. These free radicals scavenging remains a foremost challenge in most neurological disorders, which can be subjected with least collateral damage by herbal extracts. In this study, Celastrus paniculatus (CP) seeds aqueous extract (AE) (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg/ml) was used to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy against adverse effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) (7 mM) in neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32. Preliminary pharmacological investigations and free radical scavenging capacity were evaluated for AE. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were studied using MTT assay and some biochemical parameters (total protein and glutathione level as well as activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase). Moreover, genotoxicity due to free radicals was also assessed using comet assay in IMR-32 cells. Results showed presence of various phytochemicals in AE and its significant inhibition of DPPH and NO radicals. AE was not only enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes but also reduced the free radical mediated cytotoxicity of MSG in IMR-32 cells. The DNA damage found in neuronal cells due to free radical toxicity of MSG was reduced in presence of free radical inhibitory phytochemical present in AE. From these results it can be concluded that AE of CP seeds is an effective antioxidant agent and potent neuroprotective herb to mitigate MSG induced neuronal impairments in IMR-32 cells.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(3), 87-93. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-3-3
Pub. Date: October 16, 2018
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Evaluation of Agronomic Performances of Five Cowpea Lines in the Experimental Research Station of Saria, Burkina Faso
Original Research
Considered by most producers as their coffee and cocoa as it plays a role of cash crop, cowpea constitutes in Burkina Faso an important source of income to satisfy the needs of families in rural environment. It is grown in all agro-ecological area of the country. Despite this advantage, its production is held back by biotic and abiotic constraints that significantly reduce yields. Best performing varieties are therefore needed by farmers to improve productivity and their livelihoods. The present study which is an agronomic performances evaluation of five cowpea lines at Saria station was done in the field in a Fisher block with three (03) replications. The results revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) among lines for the parameters chlorophyll content, the number of days to 95% maturity, and the weight of one hundred seeds. On the other hand, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was noted among lines concerning grain and fodder yields. However, the best results have been obtained with the improved lines BC3F10P34-1 and BC3F10P34-3. These lines were better than their parent KVx745-11P and could be disseminated to rural producers to ensure food security and improve their incomes.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(3), 82-86. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-3-2
Pub. Date: May 22, 2018
10237 Views3065 Downloads1 Likes
Phytochemical, Physiochemical and Mineral Contents of Domesticated and Non Domesticated Populations of Momordica charantia L. Seeds Harvested at Two Maturity Stages
Original Research
Momordica charantia L. is a therapeutically important medicinal plant belonging to family Cucurbitaceae and extensively consumed as a vegetable and used as a treatment for an array of ailments in Ayurveda and traditional systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Seeds of Momordica charantia contain an array of bioactive molecules including phenolics, carotenoids and rich source of physiochemical constituents, minerals, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) and hence seeds possess anticancer, antitumor, anti-mutagenic, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities. Phyto-constituents and therapeutic activities are depend on plant species or variety, their genetic makeup and maturity stages. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine phytochemical physiochemical and mineral composition of six populations of Momordica charantia seeds harvested at two different maturity stages. Physiochemical composition was determined according to official AOAC method. Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) were determined using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method respectively. Mineral content was determined using Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometric method. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in moisture, dry matter content, ash content, crude fat and crude protein among mature and ripen stages. While maturity progressed crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and dry matter content were increased and moisture content was decreased. Mineral contents in Momordica seeds were varied between maturity stages as well as different populations. The highest mineral content was observed in undomesticated population. TAC and TPC decreased when maturity progressed and the highest TAC and TPC were observed in mature stage of Momordica seeds. Therefore, it is suggested to exploit undomesticated M. charantiapopulations with elevated phytonutrient contents for pharmaceutical and neutraceutical industries.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(3), 77-81. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-3-1
Pub. Date: May 07, 2018
9417 Views2937 Downloads1 Likes