Volume 6, Issue 2

By-product Originating from Artisan Distillers of Rice Alcohol in Northern Vietnam: Production, Use and Nutrient Value for Smallholder Pig Raising
Original Research
The objective of this study was to investigate by-product production originating from artisan distillers of rice alcohol and its use as pig feed in three provinces (Hai Duong, Hung Yen and Bac Giang) of Northern Vietnam. A total of 120 rice alcohol producers classified by production scales (30 producers for Large-L, 45 producers for Medium-M and 45 producers for Small-S) were interviewed from January to August 2015. Additionally, sixty-three rice distiller’s by-product samples were collected from the study areas to determine their daily nutrient content according to one week storage time. The annual dry matter feedstuff production was estimated to 4.8, 3.0 and 2.1 tons per household for L, M and S scales, respectively (p<0.001). Swine herd size increased with the scale of household alcohol production (p<0.05). The proportion of rice distiller’s by-product in diet of swine lowered when turning from pregnant to lactating sows, and varied in fattening pigs. Rice distiller’s by-product was rich in high quality crude protein, copper and lactic acid but poor in dry matter. Its nutritive value remained stable over a week under ambient conditions. In conclusion, rice distiller’s by-product provides significant and stable amounts of nutrients in northern vietnamese pig production.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(2), 70-76. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-2-6
Pub. Date: April 27, 2018
6765 Views2818 Downloads1 Likes
Yellow Rust Effects on Grain Yield, and Yield Components of Some Spring Bread Wheat Cultivars under Rainfed Conditions
Original Research
Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis, is currently the major foliar disease of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Tunisia, causing serious yield losses and affecting grain quality. Farmers often use foliar fungicide application or resistant cultivars to counter yield loss, however, this is hampered by a lack of resistant varieties. To investigate the effects of genetic resistance and foliar fungicide application on disease level and yield components, six improved varieties were evaluated at the regional experimental station in Beja during three consecutive growing seasons. Under natural stripe rust infection, three varieties were detected as completely resistant and the others are susceptible. The pathogen affected the leaf area in the susceptible varieties and reduces the above ground biomass at harvest, seed weight and grain yield. Fungicide application reduces the disease severity on the sensitive genotypes and improves biomass, seed weight, grain yield, and harvest index. Yield benefits were much greater in the use of resistant genotypes than fungicide application on the susceptible varieties; consequently the resistance to stripe rust can have more significant benefits to farmer and to the wheat industry.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(2), 65-69. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-2-5
Pub. Date: April 26, 2018
9058 Views3697 Downloads3 Likes
Growth Parameter and Yield Attributes of Rice (Oryza Sativa) as Influenced by Different Combination of Nitrogen Sources
Original Research
The study was carried out in agronomy farm of Paklihawa Campus, IAAS, Rupandehi, Nepal. The objective of the study was to determine the response of rice as influenced by different combination of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. The study consists of three nitrogen sources i.e. urea, farmyard manure and blue green algae at various levels comprising seven treatments in randomized complete block design with three replications. Rice seedling were raised in wet nursery bed and transplanted in experimental plots. Growth parameters, yield attributing traits and grain yield of rice were recorded. Result indicates that treatment combination of 75% of recommended dose of nitrogen (90 kg ha-1), farmyard manure (5 tons ha-1) and blue green algae (9 kg ha-1) contributes to higher plant height (96.13 cm), effective tiller per square meter (345.6), filled grain per panicle (180.9), grain yield (4.787 tons ha-1), and straw yield (9.07 ton ha-1) (p < 0.05). Also, there was a positive correlation between the grain yield and effective tillers per square meter (R2=0.254), grain yield and number of filled grains per panicle (R2=0.315). Hence, 75% of recommended dose of nitrogen (90 kg ha-1), farmyard manure (5 tons ha-1) and blue green algae (9 kg ha-1) were found to improve plant characteristics thus improving rice yield.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(2), 58-64. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-2-4
Pub. Date: April 16, 2018
9857 Views2764 Downloads1 Likes
Planting Time and Pesticide Application on the Agronomic Performance of Chickpea in Semi-arid Zone, South Western Uganda
Original Research
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an under-utilised food legume in Uganda with great potential to contribute to household food, nutrition and income security. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of planting time on the agronomic performance of Desi and Kabuli chickpea genotypes. The study was conducted on-station in Mbarara district during the 2011A, B and 2012A seasons. In the 2011A season, the unusual shorter rainfall and high temperatures favoured high pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) infestation that resulted in low grain yields (347-521 kg ha-1). In the excessively rainy and cool long 2011B season, chickpea planted before and at the onset of rainfall had high Ascochyta blight plant infection. The highly wet and dry conditions significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the grain yields (400 t ha-1) of chickpea, to below its potential of 1000-3000 kg ha-1. Crops that coincided with well distributed rains alternating with sufficient sunshine (planted in late March 2012A) had higher yields (> 1200 kg ha-1). Yield losses associated with pests and diseases were managed when sowing was done after the peak of the rain season (end of March and October). Therefore, chickpea requires moderately low well distributed rains, with adequate sunny days during the vegetative and reproduction stages for higher grain yields. Integration proper planting time, variety and judicial pesticide application constituted the appropriate strategy for pod borer and Ascochyta blight management for the enhanced chickpea agronomic performance in the South Western Agro Ecological Zone of Uganda.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(2), 49-57. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-2-3
Pub. Date: April 13, 2018
7703 Views2954 Downloads
Estimation of General and Specific Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines Using Single Cross Testers for Earliness
Original Research
Maize (Zea mays L.) is third most consumed crop worldwide after rice and wheat. Maize is the main staple food in sub-Saharan Africa and Kenya, however, production has continuously been low over the past years. A line by tester analysis was carried out for 30 inbred lines and two testers to evaluate the GCA and SCA effects for yield and associated traits at three locations in Kenya during the 2016/2017 growing season. There were significant GCA and SCA mean squares indicating that both additive and non-additive gene effects contributed to the inheritance of the traits studied. Sum of squares of GCA was more than of SCA hence additive main effects contributed more to the inheritance of the traits than non-additive gene effects. Lines 1, 17, 6, 29 and 30 were good general combiners for grain yield. Testcrosses L30×T2 (4.40 t ha-1), L13×T1 (3.85 t ha-1), L20×T1 (3.59 t ha-1) and L9×T1 (3.52 t ha-1) yielded higher than best check mean and had good specific combining ability for grain yield and earliness in anthesis and silking dates. These genotypes can be evaluated further for grain yield and earliness and commercially released for use in areas with short rains.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(2), 37-48. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-2-2
Pub. Date: March 13, 2018
7366 Views2584 Downloads1 Likes
Can a Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum: Cruciferae) Seeds be a Poisonous Bait for the Larvae of Trogoderma granariumEverts?
Original Research
The Crude Extract and powder of Lepidium sativum Linn. seeds were evaluated for a toxicity effect on 5th instar larvae of the Trogoderma granariumbeetle by vapor and diet incorporation methods, respectively, as well as the repellent indicators of the powder at concentrations of 2, 0.9, 0.5, and 0.1% (w/w); the toxicity assay of essential oil was evaluated at 20, 15, 10, and 5 µl/L air. The results show that a variety of 5th larvae responses proved the effectiveness, where the essential oil vapors showed a high fumigate toxicity at 28.64 µl/L air, where the LC50 was identified after 72 hours of exposure. Additionally, the powder showed a toxicity effect at the concentrations of 2, 0.9 and 0.5% (w/w), which caused 100 and 96% mortality, respectively, and the LC50 was identified at 0.26% after 10 days of treatment. The exhibited repellent percentages of the powder were weak and at the same time had high acceptance and larval attractivity to the wheat grains treated. The attractive percentage was determined at -53.3% and -66.6% at the lowest and highest applied concentrations of 0.1% and 2% after 72 hours of exposure. The presence of the inverse relationship between the attractive and toxicity properties of the same material (L. sativum seeds) is a promising sign to the safe modeling of toxic baits, which attract and then kill larvae.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018, 6(2), 31-36. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-6-2-1
Pub. Date: March 08, 2018
4802 Views1812 Downloads