Volume 5, Issue 5

Evaluation of Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici) Seedling Resistance in Kenyan Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Mutant Lines
Original Research
Race TTKSK (Ug99) of stem rust is a serious threat to wheat production worldwide because of its wide virulence on many cultivars and its rapid spread over countries. The objective of this study was to determine resistance to Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici races of TTKTK and TTKSK at seedling stage among the wheat mutant lines. Duma, Kwale and NJBWII mutant lines were used since the parents are susceptible. Sixty three mutant lines along with six checks of NJBWII, Kwale, Duma, Cacuke, Robin and Kingbird were evaluated in the greenhouse at Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Organization, Njoro. A high frequency of mutant lines, 53.6% and 88.4% were resistant to TTKTK and TTKSK respectively, with low infection types ranging from “;” to “2+”. In addition, frequency of susceptibility was 46.38% for TTKTK and 11.59% for TTKSK on the evaluated genotypes. Resistance in these genotypes may be due to uncharacterized resistance genes or gene combinations that could not be resolved with the collection of races used. The information presented, when combined with the previous characterization of stem rust resistance genes will be useful for plant breeders in rationalizing germplasm enhancement programs.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(5), 279-283. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-5-5
Pub. Date: October 23, 2017
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Evaluation of Factors Influencing Indicators of Climate Smart Agricultural Practice on Crop in North-West Nigeria
Original Research
The current state of poverty in Nigeria is alarming and climate change threatens food security and increases poverty directly and indirectly. This research established a link that exists between climate smart agricultural practices and poverty status of small household farmers in North-West geopolitical zone of Nigeria; and based on this, examined climate smart agricultural practices and poverty status of small holder farming households in the zone. The specific objective of the study was to determine factors influencing indicators of climate smart agricultural practices on crop enterprise in the study area. Multi-stage, purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select three hundred (300) farming households in the study area, and using a set of pre-tested structured questionnaires, relevant data were collected. The study employed Ordinary Least Square (OLS), regression models to ascertain the objective. The regression analysis of maize enterprise shows that age, gender, marital status and household size were significant (p < 0.10), with age positively significant inferring that a unit increase in age will result in corresponding increase in the practice of climate smart agriculture for maize enterprise by 0.0264; also, the results showed that many more male farmers used climate smart agriculture in the maize enterprise than their female counterparts by 0.6001. Education, housing materials, lack of time and State option were significant (p < 0.01). The study concludes that crop production is greatly influenced by climate Smart Agriculture in the study area. The results suggest that those who had informal education (Arabic education) had significantly lower indices of climate smart agriculture for maize production than their counterparts who had formal education primary, secondary and tertiary. Housing material was also negatively significant (p < 0.01), meaning that the farmers with mud/thatched and mud/zinc houses had significantly lower usage of climate smart agriculture in the production of maize when compare with those with brick/zinc and concrete block zinc houses. The study concludes that socio economic variables influenced climate Smart Agriculture in the study area. It therefore recommends that women be encouraged to develop interest in climate smart agricultural farming activities through women empowerment programmes instituted by government and private bodies because men dominate the climate smart agricultural practices in the study area; Government, Non-Governmental Organizations and farmer associations should create a conducive learning environment to encourage the farmers of climate smart agriculture in the study area to embrace formal education which can improve their performance rapidly; and finally, policy on informal education should be enriched and developed in the curriculum to meet the current climate smart agricultural challenges.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(5), 273-278. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-5-4
Pub. Date: October 07, 2017
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Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects
Original Research
The research was conducted to evaluate the problems and prospects of adopting conservation agriculture in Jamalpur and Bogra districts of Bangladesh. A total of 120 farmers (20 from focal and 100 from control group) were surveyed for collecting necessary data and information. A combination of descriptive statistics and mathematical techniques was used to analyze the data. Focal farmers followed the basic principles of conservation agriculture but control farmers continued conventional crop farming practices. Focal farmers were more profitable compared to control farmers in terms of wheat and bean production. Less production due to minimum tillage, difficulties in maintenance, lack of extension service etc. were the major problems faced by the farmers. Knowledge on soil conservation and soil quality improvement, use of organic fertilizer, etc. were found as strengths; management of crop residue, scarcity of cowdung, etc. were found as weaknesses; labor opportunities, market demand, etc. were found as opportunities; and climate change and price fluctuation were found as threats of adopting conservation agriculture. Regular extension contact, arrangement of training programmes and input support are to be ensured by different government and non-government organizations to motivate farmers for adopting conservation agriculture practice.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(5), 265-272. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-5-3
Pub. Date: September 23, 2017
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Evaluation of Selected Post-Emergence Herbicides for Weed Management in Maize at Different Agroecological Zones of Nigeria
Original Research
Effects of some post-emergence herbicides on growth and yield of maize was studied at rainforest, (7 16 N, 5 12 E) and rainforest-savanna transition (7 31 N, 5 45 E) agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Atrazine at 3.0 g a.i/ha, nicosulfuron at 7.5 and 40 g a.i/ha, 2,4-D at 0.80 kg a.i /ha, and weedy check were laid out on the field in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Minitab 17 statistical software. Treatments mean were separated using Turkey test (P= 0.05). Results revealed that herbicides reduce the effect of weed competition, thereby allowing crop to perform optimally. Excellent weed control by density, weed fresh weight and weed dry weight occurred with nicosulfuron treatments, followed by 2,4-D and atrazin. However, atrazine is more effective than 2,4-D in reducing weed growth in rainforest agro-ecology. Nicosulfuron was more effective for weed control than other herbicides in both agro-ecologies of Nigeria and was recommended for successful weed management.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(5), 258-264. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-5-2
Pub. Date: September 21, 2017
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Potassium Use Efficiency of Safflower and Sunflower Grown in Different Soils
Original Research
Using alternative crops that use supplied nutrients efficiently is a possible approach in land use sustainability. Plant species vary in their potassium (K) use efficiency in soils of low K availability by using different strategies. Growing K efficient species to improve yield may be desirable if K efficiency mechanisms are illustrated. Therefore K use efficiency of the alternative oil crops safflower and sunflower was investigated under semi-controlled conditions in sandy and loamy soils using four K supplies. Both species reacted strongly to increasing K supplies in both soils and performed better in loamy soil, although they contained less K concentration in loamy soil. Under suboptimal K supply in both soils, safflower was superior over sunflower by having higher agronomic efficiency (greater relative yield), higher internal K concentration, better relative K accumulation in dry matter. Both species had similar K efficiency ratio (KER) in sandy soil, but sunflower was more efficient in loamy soil. Sunflower was superior over safflower in terms of utilization index (UI) in both soils. Sunflower had less external K requirement and recovered more K than safflower in both soil types. The K use efficiency of crops is based on different competitive components. Thus using different measures of utilization efficiency parameters to differentiate plant species and genotypes to superior and inferior could be in some cases misleading. Neither safflower nor sunflower showed a combination of high values of all K uptake and utilization efficiency components in both soils at studied K levels.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(5), 244-257. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-5-1
Pub. Date: August 31, 2017
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