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Volume 5, Issue 3

Analysis of the Groundnut Value Chain in Ghana
Original Research
Performance of the groundnut value chain in Ghana was analysed by collecting primary data through the use of semi-structured questionnaire. The data was collected from 300 farmers in the Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions coupled by eighty 80 distributors, 60 processors and 100 consumers respectively in the Brong-Ahafo and Greater Accra Regions. Findings revealed that primary producer (farmer), distributor, processor and retailer of processed output (oil/paste) are the key actors in the value chain process. Estimates of costs and returns indicate that, for every litre of groundnut oil and kilogramme of paste produced along the oil and paste chain respectively, the farmer benefits most when he/she sells groundnut in the shelled form. This is followed by the distributor, the retailer of processed output and finally the processor. On the other hand, when the farmer sells groundnut in the unshelled form, the distributor benefits most from oil and paste chain with 116% increase in profit. Further estimates of return on investment per day indicate that, the distributor benefits most along the groundnut value chain. Assessment of power relations through the use of a scoring exercise revealed distributors as the dominant governors along the chain. It is recommended that groundnut producers should add value by shelling groundnuts before selling in other to increase profit accruing to them in the chain. Existing farmer and processor groups should be empowered and individual farmers and processors should be organised into groups as it is being practiced by most traders in the chain. This will enhance their share of power along the chain.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(3), 177-188. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-3-8
Pub. Date: June 07, 2017
28137 Views5052 Downloads
Effects of Fertilizer and Fungicide Application Rates on the Incidence and Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) on Irish Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L)
Original Research
The effects of fertilizer and fungicide application rates have been demonstrated in the field on potato production. However, the fertilizer rates have not been tested fully to ascertain its effects on incidence and severity of late blight (Phytophthora infestans) on irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L). The objective of this study was to determine effects of N-P-K 17:17:17 fertilizer and Acrobat fungicide (Dimethomorph 90g/Kg + Mancozeb 600g/Kg) application rates on the incidence and severity of late blight on Irish potatoes. The experiment was conducted at Egerton University Field seven and Tumaini farm, in Molo Sub County. This was done in a randomized complete block design in a split split plot arrangement with Kenya sherekea and Dutch robjin potato varieties being used. The pathogen was isolated from infected leaves and tubers and identified in the laboratory. It was then used for in inoculation in the field. The treatments rates were N-P-K 17:17:17 fertilizer at 0, 90, 135Kg ha-1 and fungicide, Acrobat (Dimethomorph 90g/Kg + Mancozeb 600g/Kg) at rates of 0, 2.5, 3.5g/L. Each potato variety was sprayed with the fungicide three times in intervals of seven days at 47DAP, 54DAP and 61DAP. Fertilizer application was done at planting and 35 days later after emergence at equal splits. Data was collected on percent disease index (PDI) and disease severity index (DSI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted and means separated using Tukey’s test whenever ANOVA showed significant treatment differences. There was significant (P≤0.05) difference among the varieties, sites, fertilizer and fungicide levels for disease severity and incidence. The results showed that fertilizer and fungicide application rates had some effects on late blight development under field conditions depending on variety. Therefore fertilizers and fungicides should be used cautiously to reduce incidence and severity of potatoes to late blight.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(3), 169-176. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-3-7
Pub. Date: June 02, 2017
16192 Views4169 Downloads
Field Experiment to Evaluate the Efficacy of Different Doses of Chemical Fungicides against Rice Brown Leaf Spot Disease Caused byBipolarisOryzae L. at Paklihawa, Rupandehi, Nepal
Original Research
Brown Leaf Spot of Rice, caused by the PathogenBipolaris oryzae, is one of the important rice diseases resulting in high yield reduction and poor grain quality. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different doses of chemical fungicides against brown leaf spot in ‘SabhaMansuli’ variety of rice in the research field of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Paklihawa Campus from July 15, 2015 to December 1, 2015. The experimental design was RCBD with three replications and ten treatments. Treatments comprised of three different chemical fungicides; SAAF® (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63%), Tilt® (Propiconazole 25 EC) & Bavistin® (Carbendazim 50% W.P.) at three different doses of 1.5, 2 & 2.5 g (or ml) and a control plot. Among the different fungicides, Tilt® at the rate of 2 ml/lit water showed significantly lowest AUDPC value (373.7) followed by SAAF® at 2 gm/lit (374.9) while the highest value was shown by Bavistin® at 2gm/lit (590.1).Similarly, highest economic yield was obtained in SAAF® at 2gm/lit (5.220 t/h) followed by Tilt® at 2ml/lit water (5.210t/ha) and the lowest in Bavistin® at 1.5gm/lit (3.320t/ha). So, among different chemical fungicides, SAAF® at 2gm/lit being efficient, economical and easily accessible, farmers could be suggested for reducing the disease severity and subsequent increase in the yield of rice.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(3), 162-168. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-3-6
Pub. Date: May 24, 2017
19490 Views4178 Downloads
Effects of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars and Their Mixtures with Other Legume Species on Bean Foliage Beetle (Ootheca spp) Incidence, Severity and Grain Yield in Western Kenya
Original Research
Bean foliage beetle injury is a major constraint to common bean production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of mixtures of bean cultivars and legume species on the bean foliage beetle incidence, severity of damage and grain yield of beans. Field experiments were conducted at four sites in Busia County in western Kenya in 2015. A total of 21 and 22 farmers participated during the long and short rains seasons respectively. The sites were located between 34 40′ and 34 22′ East longitude and latitude 010′ N 0 20′ North and at the altitude ranging 1139 and 1265 m.a.s.l. Bean foliage beetle leaf damage incidence (74.5%) and pod damage incidence (77.6%) was significantly higher in the long than short rain season. Grain yield was significantly higher (2.2t ha-1) in the long rains than (0.9t ha-1) in short rains season. Foliage beetle incidence was significantly reduced by 15% in plots with mixed bean cultivars compared to monoculture. Severity of pod damage was reduced by 10% but the incidence of pod damage increased by 15.4% in plots of mixed bean cultivars during the long and short rain season respectively. Grain yield was 0.5 and 2.4t ha-1 in monoculture plots compared to 0.8and 2.2t ha-1 in plots of mixed bean cultivar during the long and short rain seasons respectively. Foliage beetle incidence was positively correlated to pod damage (r =0.2, p=0.0021). These results indicate that mixed cropping systems has potential in bean foliage beetle management. Combining such systems with use of resistant germplasm and proper cultural practices could reduce bean foliage beetle damage and increase bean yield.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(3), 156-161. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-3-5
Pub. Date: May 24, 2017
10748 Views2830 Downloads
Bioethanol Production from Switchgrass Grown on Coal Fly Ash-amended Soil
Original Research
Potentially toxic concentrations of certain mineral elements may be taken up in plant biomass produced on coal fly ash (CFA) contaminated soil. This raises concerns about efficiencies of downstream processes, such as hydrolysis and fermentation involved in biomass conversions to bioethanol. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess bioethanol yield from switchgrass biomass produced on CFA-amended soil (0, 7.5 and 15 %, w/w CFA/soil). Separate aliquots of the CFA-amended soils were either inoculated with isolate of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF),Rhizophagus clarus, or fortified with reduced glutathione (GSH). Mineral elements in the CFA-amended soils and plant tissues were determined using ICP-OES. Shoot samples of harvested biomass were subjected to microwave-assisted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The reducing sugar (glucose) and bioethanol in the biomass hydrolysate were determined by spectrophotometry. Results showed that CFA had a concentration-dependent increase on the levels of the mineral elements in soils that were amended. Subsequent uptake of the mineral elements in switchgrass tissues was modulated by CFA-soil amendment, AMF inoculation, and GSH fortification. The glucose concentrations in biomasss hyzrolysate of switchgrass grown on 7.5 and 15% CFA-amended soils were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the unamended (control) soil without significant adverse effect on the bioethanol yield. The bioethanol concentration (µg/mg DW) in the fermented hydrolysate of switchgrass grown on 15% CFA-amended soil (26.63) was higher than the control soil (24.46). Likewise, AMF and GSH enhanced bioethanol yield from hydrolysate of switchgrass biomass grown on the CFA-amended soil. Our results indicated that coupling CFA-amended soil with either AMF or GSH can enhance bioethanol yield.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(3), 147-155. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-3-4
Pub. Date: May 22, 2017
14500 Views3790 Downloads1 Likes
Comparative Efficiency of Table Egg Farms Under Two Different Production Systems in Oyo State, Nigeria
Original Research
This study was a comparative economic analysis of poultry egg production under different production systems in Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire from 134 (75 battery cage and 59 deep litter systems) poultry farmers through a multistage sampling procedure in three agricultural zones of the State. Descriptive statistics, budgetary techniques, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Tobit regression and student-t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results showed that the mean ages of the farmers were 44 and 40years for battery cage and deep litter systems respectively, while 97.3% and 97.0% of battery cage and deep litter system users had formal education respectively. Also, 78.9% and 88.1%; 65.3% and 57.6%; 25.3% and 28.8% of battery cage and deep litter users were male, members of cooperative society and had extension contacts respectively while 57.3% and 76.3%; 86.7 and 84.8% of battery cage and deep litter users used Isah Brown breed and commercial feed respectively. The Net Farm Incomes (NFI) per bird for battery cage system were ₦2,052.17; ₦1,282.86 and ₦1,605.28 while that of deep litter system were ₦1,897.84; ₦1,467.46 and ₦1,236.06 for small, medium and large scale farmers respectively. DEA revealed that the mean technical efficiencies for battery cage and deep litter systems were 0.892 and 0.912. Tobit regression revealed that the determinants of technical efficiency of farmers using battery cage system were extension visits (p<0.01); gender (p<0.01); farmers’ years of education (p<0.05) and membership of cooperative society (p<0.05). Also, the efficiency of farmers using deep litter system was influenced by breed of bird (p<0.01); feed type (p<0.01) and gender (p<0.01). This study concluded that there is no efficiency loss in the choice of either of the systems, except that expansion may be restricted in deep liter system if land constraints exist. The study recommended that farmers who wish to invest in poultry egg production are at liberty to choose either of the systems depending on the intended scale of production.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(3), 135-146. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-3-3
Pub. Date: May 15, 2017
14028 Views3801 Downloads
Identification of Major QTLs in an Advanced Backcross Lines Associated with Waterlogging Tolerance at Maize Seedling Stage
Original Research
Waterlogging strongly affects agronomic performance and yield of maize. In order to investigate the genetic basis of maize seedling response, remapping of the majors quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with waterlogging tolerance (WT) related traits were subjected, including plant height, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, total dry weight, during maize seedling stage by using advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) analysis approach in a mixed linear model and inclusive composite interval mapping method under waterlogging and control conditions. A 266 BC2F2 population derived from a cross between a waterlogging-tolerant line ‘HZ32’ and a susceptible line ‘K12’ was used. A new linkage map constructed, consisting of 167 polymorphic SSR markers, spanned 1797.6 cM in length across a maize genome, with an average distance of 10.8 cM between adjacent markers. A total of 44 and 25 putative QTLs were detected under waterlogging treatment and control conditions, respectively. These QTLs were distributed over all 10 chromosomes, and had LOD scores ranging from 2.58 to 14.74, explaining 3.46 to 24.37% phenotypic variation in the individual traits. Out of which, thirty one major QTLs individually accounted for more than 10% of the phenotypic variation; they were governed traits associated with RL, PH, SDW, RDW, TDW and RFW were mapped in the different genomic region on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9. The results reveal that the former major QTL mapped by AB-QTL, could be selected in backcross population for fine mapping of waterlogging tolerance. The results also may provide new insight into the molecular basis of the waterlogging response of seedlings stage and useful markers for MAS and further genetic studies on maize waterlogging tolerance.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(3), 126-134. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-3-2
Pub. Date: April 28, 2017
10361 Views2489 Downloads
Nodulation Responses of Four Food Crop Legumes to Cross-inoculation in the Guinea-savannah (Ngaoundere-cameroon) and Sudanian (Sarh-Chad) Zones
Original Research
A cross-inoculation study on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) was carried out to screen potentially hight nodulating and nitrogen fixing Rhizobiumstrains suitable for important crops legumes in the Adamawa region (Cameroon) and middle-Chari region (Chad). The experiment was displayed in a complete Randomised Block with 6 forms of inoculation representing the treatments, each of which was replicated four times. An experimental field consisted of 4 blocks, each rcorresponding to a specific crop legume, which was submitted to each of the following treatments: the control (Ctrl); Groundnut Rhizobium (GR); CowpeaRhizobium (CR); Soybean Rhizobium(SR); bambara groundnut Rhizobium(BR); and the mixture of these 4 rhizobia (MR). The cross-inoculation types consisted of taking Rhizobium isolates from each crop legume and coating with each of the seed crop before sowing (GR/cowpea/soybean/bambara groundnut, CR/groundnut/soybean/ bambara groundnut, BR/cowpea/soybean/groundnut, SR/cowpea/groundnut bambara/ groundnut, MR/groundnut/cowpea/soybean/Bambara groundnut). Cross-inoculation significantly (p = 0.001) improved the number, efficiency and dry weight of the nodules in all the crop legumes. The responses to nodule efficiency differed from one treatment or host plant species to another. In our investigation to the speculation whether one rhizobial strain can nodulate several crop legumes, we found out that groundnut can be inoculated with SR/BR in Cameroon, or CR/BR in Chad, whereas CR/BR/MR were the best trains to be associated with cowpea both in Cameroon and Chad. Farmer could also use CR/SR in Cameroon and SR/BR in Chad to inoculate soybean, or inoculate bambara groundnut in Cameroon and Chad with GR/BR. All the four crop legumes are thus considered as are promiscuous since each can form symbiotic associations with rhizobia from many other hosts. Selecting these highly effective rhizobia is an important step toward commercial inoculants production for biological nitrogen fixation research in our developing world context.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(3), 117-125. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-3-1
Pub. Date: April 18, 2017
13046 Views2973 Downloads