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Volume 5, Issue 2

Effect of Solarization with Polyethylene Sheets Amended with Animal Manure on Soil Nutrients, Fungi, Weed Growth and Yield of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
Original Research
A field experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of King Abdulaziz University at Hada Al-Sham, 120 km Northeast of Jeddah, to evaluate the effect of soil solarization with polyethylene sheets one and two layers) amended with 30 t/ha ofanimal manure (AM) on the soil content of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), soil pH,electrical conductivity (EC), number of fungi and weed growth pre– and post– solarization. Furthermore, yield components and yield of eggplant during two seasons (2015-2016) was investigated. The N, P and K were significantly increased pre- and post-solarization.Soil fungi population and weed growth were significantly increased for pre-solarization but were significantly reduced post-solarization, with significant domination of the two layers over the single layer. No significant effect of solarization or AM on soil EC and pH but the EC was reduced under the two layers compared to the single layer. The number of flowers and fruits, the fruit weight and fruit yield increased by 98-68%, 79.3-51.7%, 145.9-90.7%, and 145.9-91% respectively under the two and one layer sheets compared to the uncovered soil. The double layers-polyethylene sheets exceed the one layer sheets in all studied parameters. The flower and fruit numbers, fruit weight and yield were also increased with the addition of 30t/ha of AM at rates of 47.6%, 33.3%, 33.3% and33.7% respectively. The second season exceeds the first season in number of flowers and fruits, in fruit weight and yield. It is recommended to cover soil with two layer transparent polyethylene sheets rather than one sheet, and to amend it with 30t/ha of AM for better yield of eggplant and control of weed and soil fungi.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(2), 111-116. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-7
Pub. Date: April 01, 2017
13371 Views2856 Downloads
Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Yields in South Gonder Zone, Ethiopia
Original Research
Agriculture is the most susceptible sector to climate change related hazards. This is due to the fact that climate change affects the two most important direct agricultural production inputs and these are precipitation and temperature. The impacts of climate change on crop production and coping mechanism differ from place to place which is situated in different agro-ecological zones. Therefore, this study analyzed the impacts of climate change on crop yields in three purposively selected woreda’s of south Gonder Zone. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. In this paper, climate data were taken from Bahir Dar Meteorological Agency (BDMA) while crop yield data were obtained from South Gonder Zone Agricultural Development Office (SGZADO). The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and Microsoft Excel in order to evaluate the impact of climate change on the yields of different crops in South Gonder Zone, Ethiopia. Multiple regression, trend analysis and correlation analytical techniques were used to anlyze the data. The result showed that the annual total rainfall and mean annual temperature have been increased by an average of 126.52mm (p<0.01) and 0.531°C (P<0.01) per year respectively for Addis Zemen Station. This confirms the occurrence of global warming at Addis Zemen station. An increasing trend of crop yield data for rice, teff and maize were observed from 2003-2012 for Addis Zemen station while an increasing trend of crop yield data for teff, wheat, barley, maize, bean and pea have been observed from 2003-2012 for Mekane Eyesus stations. The result obtained from the analysis carried out indicated that the impact of rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature have been statistically insignificant except rainfall against teff, minimum temperature for teff and chickpea crops and maximum temperature for wheat, barley and pea cereal crops at 95% and 99% probability level whereas the impact of climate on the yield of rice, maize,sorghum, bean and cowpea have been statistically insignificant. Efforts should be made to increase the cultivation of crops on which the impacts of climate on their yield is insignificant.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(2), 102-110. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-6
Pub. Date: March 17, 2017
20898 Views4101 Downloads
Evaluation of Selected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars Grown in Kenya for Resistance to Bacterial Blight Disease
Original Research
Bacterial blight of cassava is one of the most important diseases of cassava worldwide due to its growing concern, widespread and destructive nature. Even though the use of resistant cultivars is the most effective management strategy for the disease, such cultivars are not well identified. Therefore, the objective of this study was to screen 21 cassava cultivars collected from major growing regions of Kenya, for reaction against bacterial blight caused byXanthomonas axonopodispv. manihotis (Xam). The cultivars were inoculated with Xam by leaf clipping and stem puncturing inoculation methods, for in vitroand potted plants, respectively. The cassava cultivars varied in their reaction to the pathogen, including incubation period, wilt incidence and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) values. Four groups of cultivars with differential reactions to Xam isolate were identified. Four cultivars (TME419, 30572, 98/0505 and Kibaha) were resistant, 4 cultivars (Albert, Ebwanatereka, Karibuni and 92/0326) moderately resistance, 11 cultivars (Serere, Muzege, TME7, 98/0581, Tajirika, Namikonga, Kibandameno, Mzalauka, AR40-6, Shibe and 01/1371) susceptible and the other 2 cultivars (Kiroba and Numbari) were highly susceptible. The resistant cultivars should be multiplied and made available as clean planting materials to cassava producing farmers and integrated as one of the options in disease management measures. These genotypes could also form vital germplasm of cassava bacterial blight disease resistance breeding programs. The cassava cultivars that showed a resistant reaction to the bacterial blight pathogen should be further evaluated against a large number of Xam isolates.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(2), 94-101. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-5
Pub. Date: March 09, 2017
13235 Views2935 Downloads
Evaluation of Expanded Black Cotton Soil as a Hydroponics Medium
Original Research
The traditional system of producing crops using soil (geoponics) is currently facing major challenges resulting in food deficits. An alternative is the adoption of soil-less culture (hydroponics) which is regarded as key in increasing production of vegetables, herbs and ornamentals. The study aimed at preparing a hydroponic medium from black cotton soil and rice husks. This involved moulding, firing and size reduction. The aggregates were evaluated based on dry bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The optimal conditions for preparing the medium was found to be at 750°C, 30 minutes and 9:1 for firing temperature, time and ratio of black cotton soil to rice husk (on a weight basis). This process resulted in 33% reduction in bulk density from 1.43 g cm-3 to 0.954 g cm-3 while the saturated hydraulic conductivity improved from 0.333*10-5 cm s-1to 0.00385 cm s-1, a value that lies between the ranges of Sandy Loam and Loamy Sand. The process improved black cotton soil into a light weight aggregate medium with reduced bulk density, loose and friable aggregates, easy to drain and having moderate permeability to permit water and nutrient movement. The medium is therefore better suited to grow potted plants under indoor or outdoor conditions.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(2), 88-93. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-4
Pub. Date: March 06, 2017
13319 Views3131 Downloads
Effect of Topographic Position and Seasons on the Micronutrient Levels in Soils and Grown Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) in Bafut (North-West Cameroon)
Original Research
Although topography and climate are known to affect soils micronutrient mobility, some related aspects like micronutrient bioavailability to plants and implications to human intake are not fully understood. This paper aimed to study the effects of different topographic positions and seasons (dry or humid) on micronutrient levels in soils and Solanum scabrum. A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted for each topographic position. Fieldwork was completed by a battery of soil and vegetable analyses. The main results revealed that soil micronutrient levels appeared as follows: Al>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu for all positions and seasons. The soil micronutrient levels were lowest for the midslope in relation to its steeper gradient that affects downwards migration of matter. Zn and Cu were below the recommended range for agricultural soils, while Al was far above in relation to the strongly acidic pH. In S. scabrum, micronutrients appeared as Mn>Fe>Zn>Al> Cu. Globally, vegetable metals levels were higher in the dry season for all positions. Except Al, all metals were below permissible and toxicity levels in food, while only Fe, Mn and Zn where above recommended range for normal plant growth. Metal transfer factors, apart from midslope, were higher in the dry season. Only Mn and Zn for all positions and seasons as well as Zn at footslope, were above 1. Globally, micronutrient levels in soils and vegetables were higher in the dry seasons for all positions. Micronutrient intake rates were higher in the dry season for all positions but lowest in the midslope for all seasons. Except Fe and Zn in adults, metal levels were above the recommended daily dietary intake indicating excess micronutrients intake by the inhabitants. Overall, a combination of steep slope and humid season reduces soil micronutrient level, limit uptake by vegetables and hence reduce mean daily intake in humans.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(2), 73-87. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-3
Pub. Date: March 04, 2017
23161 Views4056 Downloads16 Likes
Comparative Studies Between Xanthomonascitri subsp.malvacearum Isolates, Causal Agent of the Bacterial Blight Disease of Cotton
Original Research
Out of 21 bacterial isolates collected during a survey from seven different cotton growing areas representing three districts of Tamil Nadu, India, only eight bacterial isolates ofXanthomonas axonopodispv. malvacearum (Xam), now being called (Xanthomonas citrisubsp. malvacearum) were found to be pathogenic to the susceptible cotton variety TCB-209. The eight pathogenic isolates were grouped into clusters A and B based on protein profiles. Cluster A had I1, I3, I5, I7 and I8isolates while cluster B had I2, I4 and I6isolates.. The isolates were morphologically similar, but varied in their cultural and biochemical characteristics. Isolate I5 collected from Kavalur region showed a very high degree of virulence. Polyclonal antiserum was raised using the most virulent isolate I5 and the titre was found to be 1:500. The antiserum also reacted positively with the other isolates. Pathogen was detected from different parts of the infected plant through DAC-ELISA and the leaves recorded maximum absorbance value indicating high level of bacterial infection.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(2), 64-72. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-2
Pub. Date: February 23, 2017
18404 Views3115 Downloads
Gross Margin Analysis of Modern Groundnut Oil Extraction in Gombe Metropolis Gombe State, Nigeria
Review Article
The study examined the profit and market efficiency of small-scale modern groundnut oil extraction of RMP-12 and Ex-dakar varieties in Gombe Metropolis Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 90 small-scale groundnut oil processors. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and were analysed using farm budget, sherphered-futrel and paired t-test models. The results revealed that costs of shelled groundnut constituted the major (92.3% and 91.6%) components of processing costs for RMP-12 and Ex-dakar groundnut varieties respectively. The gross ratio and operating ratio were all < 1, meaning that the business was profitable. Also, the returns per naira of RMP-12 and Ex-dakar were ₦ 0.17 ($ 0.0006) and ₦ 0.25 ($0.0009) respectively. The marketing coefficient revealed Jekadafari markets (69.97%) to be most efficients in the case of Ex-dakar products. The results further revealed 82.29% and 74.83% of the gross margins of respective RMP-12 and Ex-dakar varieties were spent on marketing costs, with the remaining 17.71% and 25.17% were retained as the net profit and diffrence was significant (P<0.01). Despite the fact that RMP-12 variety gave higher gross income, the study concluded that the Ex-dakar variety performed better. Major impediments to profit and market efficiency were inadequate capital, high costs of shelled groundnut and transportation costs. It is therefore recommended that, the traders should have access to formal loans so as to improve productivity and efficiency.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(2), 58-63. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-1
Pub. Date: February 16, 2017
20757 Views5188 Downloads
Management of Ginger Rhizome Fly (Calobatasp.) and Associated Rhizome Rot (Pythiumsp.)
Review Article
Rhizome fly (Calobataspp.) is a major insect pest of ginger associated with rhizome rot. A field experiment was conducted at Ginger Research Program (GRP), Salyan (1520 masl) during the year 2013 - 2014 to develop rhizome fly and associated rhizome rot (Pythiumsp.) management technology. One insecticide (Chloropyrifos 20E) and two fungicides [Diathane M-45 (Mancozeb 80%) and Bavistin (Carbendazim 50%)] including untreated check (control) were tested solely or in combination against rhizome fly and associated rhizome rot in RCBD with three replications. The overall result revealed that the two-stage application (seed rhizome treatment and soil drenching) and treatments having more combinations of options was found to be better than treatment with single application or having less combinations of options. The combined use of 4 ml Chloropyrifos + 2.5 g DM-45 + 1 g Bavistin per liter of water in two stage i.e. seed rhizome treatment before planting and soil drenching one month after ginger germination, recorded significantly lowest (0.32 mt/ha) rhizome fly infected rhizome and the highest fresh rhizome yield (20.89 mt/ha). It is therefore, recommended that this combination, being efficient to provide maximum protection, can be utilized as a valuable chemical integration in rhizome fly and associated rhizome rot management in ginger.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(2), 58-61. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-2-1
Pub. Date: February 11, 2017
20757 Views5486 Downloads1 Likes