Volume 5, Issue 1

Yield and Yield Components of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) as Influenced by Supplemental Irrigation under Semi-arid Region of Tunisia
Original Research
A field experiment was conducted at the research station of Higher Agriculture School of Kef located in a semi-arid region of Tunisia to study the effect of supplemental irrigation on yield and yield components of four Tunisian faba bean genotypes (Bachaar, Badii, Chahbi and locale). Two supplemental irrigations were applied at the flowering and pod formation stages. Results showed a significant effect of supplemental irrigation on biological yield (BY/P), seed number per plant (SN/P), 100-seed weight (100 SW), grain yield (GY/m2), harvest index (HI) and number of days to maturity (NDM). Grain yields under supplemental irrigation varied from 83.9 to 208.7 g/m2, and they varied from 18.6 to 65.8 g/m2 under drought conditions. Average 100-seeds weight increment due to supplemental irrigation condition was 52.8%. Results showed also that under rain fed condition, Bachar genotypes required minimum number of days to maturity (134.3 days). Drought susceptibility index (DSI) values for grain yield ranged from 0.8 to 1.13. Chahbi was relatively drought resistant (DSI values <1). This genotype proved high yielding and drought tolerant and can be incorporated in stress breeding programme for the development of drought tolerant faba bean varieties.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 52-57. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-7
Pub. Date: January 23, 2017
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Silicon Induces Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Altering the Physiology and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cassava
Original Research
Cassava bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is a devastating disease limiting cassava production. The potential effect of Si application on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms attributed to Si-mediated resistance of cassava to Xam was evaluated. The optimal concentration of Si in enhancing resistance to CBB without detrimental effects on plant growth was determined using cultivars TME14 and TMS60444 known for their susceptibility to Xam. Varied concentrations of Si (0.7 to 2.1 mM) were administered by watering the plants three times per week before and after Xam inoculation. The optimized Si concentration was used to evaluate the effect of Si supplementation on resistance to CBB disease using eight farmer-preferred cassava cultivars. The population of Xam, cultivar resistance, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, activity of antioxidant enzymes and total Si content in cassava cultivars were quantified 21 days post inoculation. Silicon concentration of 1.4 mM was optimal in enhancing cassava resistance to Xam. Silicon-treated plants of all cassava cultivars showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower Xam population ranging from 5% to 26.7% compared to non-Si treated control plants. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde, H2O2 and chlorophyll contents were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in Si treated plants than non-Si treated plants. Silicon accumulation in leaves of Si treated plants was higher compared to non-Si treated control plants.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 42-51. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-6
Pub. Date: January 18, 2017
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Screening Of Maize Genotypes against Southern Leaf Blight (Bipolaris Maydis) during Summer Season in Nepal
Original Research
A study was conducted from 29 March 2014 to 27 July 2014 at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Paklihawa, Rupandehi with the objective of screening 13 maize genotypes against southern leaf blight caused by Bipolaris maydis. Field experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Disease scoring was done as percentage of leaf area infected on individual plant at 5 days intervals starting from 63 days after sowing, for 3 times, and disease severity and mean AUDPC were calculated and yield was recorded. Among the tested genotypes, disease severity varies significantly. Disease symptoms appeared first in Yellow Popcorn, 64.00 days after sowing (DAS) with the highest severity and at last in RML-32/RML-17 (79.00 DAS) with the least score in field. The 13 genotypes differed significantly in mean AUDPC values. RML-32/RML-17 (AUDPC value 5.90) appeared most resistant, followed by RML-4/RML-17 (AUDPC value 11.50), while Yellow Popcorn (AUDPC value 71.99) was most susceptible among the tested genotypes. Highest maize yield (3.43 metric ton ha-1) was also recorded on RML-32/RML-17 and least (0.75 metric ton ha-1) on Yellow Popcorn. Maximum SPAD value above cob was recorded in RML-4/RML-17 (45.62) followed by S03TLYQ-AB-01 (44.88) while minimum in Yellow popcorn (30.60). So, Yellow popcorn has the highest (3.16) and RML-32/RML-17 (0.08) lowest total AUDPC above cob. Similarly maximum SPAD value below cob was recorded in RML-4/RML-17 (44.37), while minimum in Yellow popcorn (28.82). So, Yellow popcorn has the highest (8.75) and RML-32/RML-17 (0.41) has lowest total AUDPC below cob. The genotypes RML-4/RML-17 and RML-32/RML-17 appeared resistant to SLB with maximum yield. These genotypes could be used as the sources of resistance in breeding program and could be developed to resistant varieties grown under tropical and subtropical climatic conditions during summer season. The genotype Yellow popcorn being highly susceptible to SLB with a maximum mean AUDPC and minimum yield, can be used as susceptible check for breeding purpose and different varietal screening.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 31-41. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-5
Pub. Date: January 07, 2017
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Assessment of Farmers Maize Production Practices and Effect of Triple-Layer Hermetic Storage on the Population of Fusarium Spp. and Fumonisin Contamination
Original Research
Fumonisin contamination of maize by Fusarium spp. is a major risk in food security, human and animal health. A study was carried out in Kaiti District, Makueni County in Kenya, to assess the effectiveness of triple-layer hermetic (PICS™) bags in the management of Fusarium spp. and fumonisin contamination of stored maize grains. Maize production practices including scale of production, methods of land preparation, variety grown and storage methods were obtained with a questionnaire. Fusarium spp. in soil and maize were isolated by dilution-plating method and fumonisin content in maize was measured. Majority (86.7%) of the farmers were smallholders who mostly stored maize in polypropylene (PP) bags. Fusarium proliferatum was predominant in soil (1.4 x 103 CFU/g of soil) and stored grain (2.7 x 103 CFU/g of maize) while F. oxysporum was predominant in freshly harvested grain (1.4 x103 CFU/g of maize). The population of Fusarium spp. was 74.6% higher in PP than in PICS bags after three months of storage. Total fumonisin in maize grains sampled at harvest and after three-months storage ranged from < 2 to 6.0 ppm and was 57.1% lower in PICS bags than in PP bags. The population of Fusarium spp. in maize was positively correlated with fumonisin levels. The findings of this study demonstrate that PICS bags can effectively manage the population of Fusarium spp. and accumulation of fumonisin in stored maize.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 21-30. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-4
Pub. Date: December 28, 2016
15391 Views2601 Downloads
Econometric Modeling of the Epidemic Cost of Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease on Coconut Cultivation in Ghana: A Case Study of MYD x VTT Hybrid Coconuts
Original Research
Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease has destroyed several thousands of hectares of coconut plantings in the main coconut producing regions of Ghana namely, Western, Central, and Volta Regions. The capacity of the disease to decimate coconut populations in active disease foci threatens the coconut industry rehabilitation programmes in Ghana. This study critically evaluates the effect of Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease on coconut yield, and verifies economic cost of the disease on coconut cultivation in Ghana, using robust econometric models and statistical analytical tools. Disease data from selected Coconut Sector Development Project’s Malayan Yellow Dwarf x Vanuatu Tall hybrid coconut farms spanning eight consecutive years (2008-2015) were used for this important study. Ordinary least squares regression of the data indicates, the disease has significant effect on coconut yield and that expected annual yield of diseased palms and price per unit nut are significant determinants of the economic cost of Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease on coconut cultivation in Ghana. The disease can cause 100% crop losses if appropriate containment strategies are not implemented in time. These findings confirm the assertion of Danyo that, Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease of coconut has a significant economic cost. An assertion corroborated much later by Osemwegie. However, compared to the latter, the economic cost of CSPWD on coconut yield is lesser; accentuating the knowledge that hybrid coconuts are less susceptible to the CSPWD than the pure lines.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 9-20. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-3
Pub. Date: December 26, 2016
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Effect of Biocontrol, Physical Control and Compost on Tomato Plants that Infected with Fusarium wilt under Greenhouse Conditions
Original Research
The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum, Spent mushroom compost and carbendazim 50 % W.P with solarized and unsolarized soil to promote some of plant growth parameters of tomato plants infested with Fusarium wilt disease under in vivo conditions. The application of T. harzianum with spent mushroom compost exhibited the maximum number of fruits per plant after 150 days. Also tomato plants treated with carbendazim showed a significant stimulatory effect on weight of five fruits per replicate (g) of tomato plants by 132.50 g and increased the cost benefit ratio by 2.57 followed by treatment of T. harzianum by 2.31 in comparison with treatment of F. oxysorum alone.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 5-8. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-2
Pub. Date: December 12, 2016
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Agronomic Performance of Forage Sorghum Genotypes as Affected by Watering Interval in Semi-arid Environment
Original Research
In the latest years, scarcity of rainfall in North Kordofan of Sudan led to the search for irrigation water for cultivation of fodder crops to fill the gap in fodder production, hence the North Kordofan state characterized by a limited water situations. Therefore, efficient use of irrigation water seems to be of vital importance. This situation emphasizes the need for using earlier variety and scientifically sound methods for deciding when and how much to irrigate the crops. A field experiment was carried out during two successive seasons (2014/2015) and (2015/2016), to investigate the effect of ten genotypes and two watering intervals (seven and ten days) on growth and yield of forage sorghum. The treatments were arrange in a split plot design with three replications. The results showed that there were significant differences among watering intervals and genotypes for the most characters measured. The Watering interval of seven days significantly improved growth and forage yield of sorghum. Hybrid Pioneer was superior in plant height, leaf to stem ratio (LSR), fresh and dry forage yield (ton/ha) compared to other genotypes.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(1), 1-4. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-5-1-1
Pub. Date: December 10, 2016
11951 Views3103 Downloads