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Volume 4, Issue 4

Management of Ginger Rhizome Fly (Calobata sp.) and Associated Rhizome Rot (Pythium sp.)
Original Research
Rhizome fly (Calobata spp.) is a major insect pest of ginger associated with rhizome rot. A field experiment was conducted at Ginger Research Program (GRP), Salyan (1520 masl) during the year 2013 - 2014 to develop rhizome fly and associated rhizome rot (Pythium sp.) management technology. One insecticide (Chloropyrifos 20 EC) and two fungicides [Diathane M-45 (Mancozeb 80 WP) and Bavistin (Carbendazim 50 DF)] including untreated check (control) were tested solely or in combination against rhizome fly and associated rhizome rot in RCBD with three replications. The overall result revealed that the two-stage application (seed rhizome treatment and soil drenching) and treatments having more combinations of options was found to be better than treatment with single application or having less combinations of options. The combined use of 4 ml Chloropyrifos + 2.5 g DM-45 + 1 g Bavistin per liter of water in two stage i.e. seed rhizome treatment before planting and soil drenching one month after ginger germination, recorded significantly lowest (0.32 mt/ha) rhizome fly infected rhizome and the highest fresh rhizome yield (20.89 mt/ha). It is therefore, recommended that this combination, being efficient to provide maximum protection, can be utilized as a valuable chemical integration in rhizome fly and associated rhizome rot management in ginger.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(4), 128-131. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-4-5
Pub. Date: July 02, 2016
14509 Views3420 Downloads6 Likes
Occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and Associated Mycotoxins in Narok and Nakuru Counties, Kenya
Original Research
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of small grain cereals. This study assessed the incidence and severity of FHB of wheat at hard dough stage, and levels of deoxynivalenol and T2-toxin at harvest by direct competitive enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay. Wheat ears were randomly sampled from 51 farms in Narok County and 51 farms in Nakuru County at hard dough stage while wheat kernels were sampled at harvest. Prevalence of FHB in both Counties was 100%. The mean incidence of FHB was 28.4% and 20.5% in Narok and Nakuru Counties, respectively with 16.9% and 11.7% corresponding severity. Over 14 Fusarium spp. were isolated from wheat ears and kernels with F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. graminearum being isolated in the highest incidence. Levels of DON in the kernels ranged from below limit of detection ( LOD) to 623 µg/kg while the concentration of T-2 toxin ranged from LOD to 69 µg/kg. The levels of DON and T2-toxin in wheat kernels in the two Counties were within the limits set by the European Commission and the United States Food and Drug Administration. The relatively low incidence and severity of FHB correlated with the low levels of DON and T-2 toxin in harvested wheat grains. There is however need to continuously monitor occurrence of FHB and toxin levels in wheat which varies among seasons due to variability in climatic conditions.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(4), 119-127. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-4-4
Pub. Date: June 27, 2016
20302 Views4400 Downloads2 Likes
Some Morphological Observations on Albo-nigrescens, Albo-virescens and Virescens Types of Oil Palm Planted at Yaligimba (DRC)
Original Research
This study has confirmed that the pure albescens oil palm does not exist. There are 2 types of albescens well-described in this paper: albo-nigrescens and albo-virescens. An open-pollinated albo-virescens progeny planted at Yaligimba has shown 36% albo-nigrescens, 36% of albo-virescens, 18 % virescens and 9% nigrescens palms. However, the self-pollinated albo-nigrescens progenies have revealed only two types of palms, 77% albo-nigrescens, 23% nigrescens palms, but no virescens and no albo-virescens. Differences among different oil palm types appear not only on the fruit colours, but also on the colours of rachis, petioles and inflorescences. The albo-nigrescens and albo-virescens progenies planted at Yaligimba plantation have shown short heights, and also has given acceptable bunch productions.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(4), 114-118. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-4-3
Pub. Date: June 17, 2016
19353 Views4665 Downloads5 Likes1 Citations
Adoption of Improved Cassava Processing Technologies by Women Entrepreneur in South – West, Nigeria
Original Research
The study examined factors influencing adoption of cassava processing technologies by women entrepreneur in South – West, Nigeria using primary data. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 373 respondents with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and probit regression model were used to analyse the data. Results revealed that majority (74%) of the women entrepreneur were under 50 years, 80% were married with an average age of 43 years. About 86.6% of the respondents had primary education with 51% of the respondents having 4 - 6 members per house. It further revealed that 67% of the women entrepreneur adopted improved technologies with cassava mechanical grater being the most used improved technology while the factors affecting adoption of the technologies were educational status, source of information, credit and raw material. It was also revealed that the challenges faced by the women entrepreneur were high cost of equipment, non-availability of the technologies, difficult to operate and lack of knowledge. The study concluded that there should be easy accessibility to improved technologies among women entrepreneurs.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(4), 109-113. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-4-2
Pub. Date: May 19, 2016
17452 Views4828 Downloads3 Likes
Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Waste Powder: Its Influence on the Growth and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)
Original Research
The study was composed of six levels of mushroom waste powder (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 grams MWP per kg of basal feed) supplemented to the basal feed of broiler chickens. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in three replications to determine the effects of mushroom waste powder levels on body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency, average daily gain in weight, and meat quality of broiler chickens. Average daily gain (ADG) in weight and body weight (BW) negatively affected by MWP at the early age of broiler chickens, then slightly improved over time of feeding, but does not vary between treatments (P>0.05). Feeding broiler chickens up to 20 grams MWP significantly increased feed consumption (FC), however, a 25 grams MWP significantly decreased (P=0.01) feed consumption during 18 days period of feeding. Feed consumption efficiency (FCE) slightly improved over time but does not varies (P>0.05) with the control. Broiler meat quality varies significantly with the level of MWP in terms of texture (p=0.0017), tenderness, (p= 0.0001), taste p=0.049) and general acceptability (p=0.0018). However, within these parameters, meat quality of broilers fed with MWP at all levels generally does not vary from the control, except for T2 in terms of taste and tenderness where it is significantly lower compared to the control treatment. MWP does not compromise, in fact, slightly improved the meat quality of broiler chickens. A slight improvement of average daily gain in weight (ADG), body weight (BW), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and meat quality; and a decrease in feed consumption (FC) with increasing levels of MWP is an indication that MWP is a potential feed additive in chickens. Another study to layer chickens and age of administration maybe done to investigate further the potential of MWP.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(4), 98-108. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-4-1
Pub. Date: May 13, 2016
23828 Views5630 Downloads7 Likes1 Citations