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Volume 4, Issue 3

Calculating Biogas Potential in Croatia: Case of a PIG Farm and Small-scale Digestion
Original Research
With Croatia becoming a member of the European Union in 2013, the country faces numerous challenges and opportunities. The energy production from organic waste is less than 3 % of total energy production, although the potential is 10 times higher. It becomes evident that the agricultural sector can play an important role in reaching the country’s renewable energy target. Moreover, research and field trials indicate the opportunities for digestate as a replacer of mineral fertilizer. In order to boost the agro- energy sector, Sisak–Moslavina County joined the FP7 funded project - INEMAD (Improved Nutrient and Energy Management through Anaerobic Digestion, 2012-2016) - whose main goal is to reconnect livestock and crop production in a sustainable way. In order to investigate potentials, SMC, together with two Belgian partners (DLV Belgium, Innova Energy) prepared a feasibility study of the biogas potential for the pig farm K. from Osijek – Baranja County. The pig farm has a production capacity of 7.200 pigs. The feasibility study showed that for a farm of this size an optimal solution would be an installation of a small-scale digester. In the specific case, the plant of 38 kWel would allow the framer to spread the manure/ digestate more easily and generate electricity that could be used on the farm. However, the plant of 11 kWel. would be enough for covering the farm´s energy needs which allows farmer to use specific renewable energy sources focused governmental subsidies. Based on the biogas calculation tool, developed by DLV Belgium, the biogas unit of 11 kWel. could produce 54.000 m3/year of biogas (approximately 59.600 m3/year of biomethane). Another added value of the biogas plant implementation would be an improved nutrient management that would result in creating highly valuable organic fertilizer - digestate. This contribution provides insights in the feasibility study preparation and answers to farmer ownership questions on biogas production in organic farming that is similar in size and capacity.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 94-97. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-5
Pub. Date: May 04, 2016
10879 Views4150 Downloads
Evaluation of Quality and Safety Parameters of Poultry Meat Products Sold In Hyderabad Market, Pakistan
Original Research
30 Samples of five poultry meat products including chicken nuggets (S1), chicken fillets (S2), chicken burgers (S3), chicken meatballs (S4) and chicken kababs (S5) were collected from various retailers from Hyderabad market to evaluate quality and safety parameters. All the samples were investigated for pH, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture, ash, fat, protein content, total volatile base (TVB), total viable count (TVC) and coliform count (CC). Results revealed that chicken nuggets, fillets, burgers, meatballs and kababs varied significantly (P≤0.05) for pH, WHC, moisture, ash, fat, protein contents, TVB and CC, and non-significantly (P>0.05) for TVC. Highest pH (6.05) was recorded for meatballs, while lowest pH value (4.90) was recorded for chicken fillets. Among the investigated chicken products meatballs showed highest WHC (48.18%), while lowest was recorded in chicken kababs (27.72%). Moisture content was highest (70%) in meatballs, and lowest in chicken nuggets (62.45%). Maximum ash content (3.13%) was recorded in kababs, and lowest (1.27%) was confirmed in fillets. Fat content was maximum (10.78%) in meatballs, while minimum was recorded in kababs (4.97%). Highest protein level (20.25%) was found in kababs, while meatballs displayed lowest protein level (12.53%). Highest TVB (69.50 mg/100 g) was noted for fillets, while lowest in kababs (17.14 mg/100 g). In the microbiological examination of chicken products Total viable count (TVC) was highest in (7433.33 cfu/g) fillets, while lowest was noted in meatballs (6.43x103cfu/g). The Coliform count (CC) was highest (6.3x103cfu/g) in meatballs, while lowest values were verified in burgers (3.05x103 cfu/g). Total volatile base (TVB) and Total viable count (TVC) was greater in chicken fillets as compared to other products. This clearly indicates unhygienic circumstances at certain stages during manufacturing, processing, handling and storage of chicken meat products.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 85-93. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-4
Pub. Date: April 25, 2016
19894 Views5415 Downloads6 Likes
Evaluation of Herbicides on the Content and Yield of Raw Protein in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)
Original Research
The investigation was carried out at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo during 2012 – 2014 in four-field crop rotation (wheat-maize-wheat-sunflower). Cultivars Aglika and Enola were sown at two dates – optimal (1st – 15th October) and late (after 20th November). The following set of herbicides was tested: Derby super VG – 3,3 g/da; Palace 75WG + oil – 25+100 g/ml/da; Granstar 75DF – 1,5 g/da; Lintur 70VG – 15 g/da; Husar Max ОD – 100 ml/da; Secator ОD – 10 ml/da and Mustang 306,25СК – 80 ml/da. The herbicides were applied at three dates: 1st date А – stage 29 according to Zadoks (Tillering stage); 2nd date B – stage 32 according to Zadoks (Stem elongation) and 3rd date С – stage 37 according to Zadoks (Emergence of flag leave). The experiment included two control variants К1 – weed-free control (manually weeded from the emergence of the first weeds till heading of wheat), and К2 (nil) – a control variant infested till harvesting of the crop. A high level of significance of the tested herbicides on the values of raw protein in grain and protein yield from the investigated cultivars was determined under the conditions of the experiment. The years of investigation had highest effect on the values of the tested characteristics. Best results were obtained in 2012. The two cultivars formed grain with the highest raw protein content in 2014. Regardless the sowing data the grain of cultivar Enola reached the maximum content of raw protein at the tillering stage of herbicides application, on the contrary of cultivar Aglika. The grain of cultivar Enola contained raw protein 9.33% more then cultivar Aglika average for the trail. The auxin type herbicide Lintur 70 VG cased the increasing the raw protein content in maximum degree in comparison the other herbicides. The exceeding to the weed-free control was 16.67% average for the years. At the late date of herbicide application, the amount of protein decreased in both cultivars. Averaged for the investigated period, the size of protein yield of cultivar Enola was with 18.7 % higher than the yield of cultivar Aglika. Cultivar Aglika has well expressed tolerance to the stages of herbicide application in comparison with cultivar Enola. Aglika’s raw protein yield was higher at the stem elongation stage (32 Zadoks) of herbicides applicaton. Cultivar Enola differ from cultivar Aglika with the greatest raw protein yield at the tillering stage (29 Zadoks) of herbicides application. In all three years of the investigation, highest yield of raw protein was obtained from the manually weed-free control (К1) and lowest – from the infested control (К2). Averaged for the tested variants of the trial, only after the application of the herbicides Derby super VG and Secator OD the raw protein yield remained at the level of the weed-free control (К1). There was a strong positive correlation of grain yield with raw protein yield. Averaged for the period of investigation, the sowing date of cultivar Aglika did not show significant effect on the values of the correlation coefficients. In cultivar Enola, the late sowing date lead to high increase of the correlation. This tendency was best expressed in harvest year 2014 (r=,875**). The regression models obtained for the investigated years once again confirmed the high proportional correlation of grain yield with protein.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 77-84. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-3
Pub. Date: April 22, 2016
25514 Views5962 Downloads2 Likes
Farming Community Perceptions about Climate Change in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan
Original Research
This study was conducted in Swabi district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with the objectives to study the knowledge of small scale farmers about climate change and its impact on livelihood and to pinpoint about the climate changes and temperature during last five years in Swabi district. For this 08 Union Councils (UCs) were selected from 56 UCs of the district randomly, from which 200 respondents were drawn through sample random sampling methods. Primary data were collected at the field survey through interviews structure schedule and were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Findings revealed most of the respondents were owner cum tenant and having un-irrigated land. Maize, wheat and tobacco were the main growing crops of the area. Majority of the respondents did not grow any fruit trees due to lack of water and heavy frost. The finds also pointed that changes observed in increased or decreased in temperature and monsoon rain during last 5 years which having drastic affect on the production of crops in the area. Farmer’s adoptive and mitigative practices also change by bringing changes in the agronomic practices. The study as a whole concludes that climate change affecting the environment and agriculture sector. It was recommended that there is a need of awareness campaigns, farmer’s education, farmers training and skill development, developing high yielding heat, cold/drought tolerant and short duration verities of crop and the adoption of agro forestry for reducing the climate change in agriculture sector.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 70-76. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-2
Pub. Date: April 14, 2016
17831 Views4065 Downloads5 Likes
Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Newly Selected Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) Genotypes in Nigeria Using Rapd-Pcr Molecular Analysis
Original Research
In order to assess the genetic diversity among Nigerian Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), certain genetic and morphological markers were used to group the various accessions collected into distinct genotypes. Molecular characterisation was then conducted on the twenty newly selected genotypes (NGR-HS-001, NGR-HS-002, NGR-HS-003, NGR-HS-004, NGR-HS-005, NGR-HS-006, NGR-HS-007, NGR-HS-008, NGR-HS-009, NGR-HS-010, NGR-HS-011, NGR-HS-012, NGR-HS-013, NGR-HS-014, NGR-HS-015, NGR-HS-016, NGR-HS-017, NGR-HS-018, NGR-HS-019, and NGR-HS-020) of the Roselle (H. sabdariffa Linn.), using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) based techniques. The molecular characterisation was carried out at the Biotechnology Laboratory, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan. Five RAPD primers i.e. OPH05, OPB17, OPT17, OPB11 and OPB04 were able to amplify 30 reproducible fragments of which 100 % were polymorphic, indicating that Nigerian Roselle accessions are genetically heterogeneous; it also showed that RAPD analysis is an effective molecular marker in detecting genetic diversity among different Roselle genotypes in Nigeria. All the primers gave a high genetic diversity and high polymorphic information contents, however, OPT17 gave the highest genetic diversity and polymorphic information content (0.79 and 0.78 respectively). The Dice Dissimilarity index for the calculation of distances among the roselle accessions revealed an interesting phenomenon because a clear divergence among the H. sabdariffa accessions was found. The dissimilarity index ranged from 0-1, which revealed a wide range of genetic identity. Dissimilarity coefficient of accession NGR-HS-017 was the highest (1.00); this accession was totally different or genetically distance from all the other accessions. In addition, a high dissimilarity index (1.00) was also obtained among some of the accessions; NGR-HS-018 was highly dissimilar from NGR-HS-002, NGR-HS-012 and NGR-HS-016. However, a quite number of the accessions showed moderately low to zero dissimilarity indices. It is therefore concluded that RAPD-PCR analysis provided very valuable means for determining relationships among H. sabdariffa accessions. Wide genetic variability observed among the Roselle accessions could be exploited in different breeding programs of the crop. Therefore, other DNA markers like SSR and RFLP should be used to ascertain these levels of relationships.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(3), 64-69. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-3-1
Pub. Date: April 08, 2016
13596 Views3828 Downloads1 Likes1 Citations