Volume 4, Issue 2

The Impact of Bradyrhizobium, Farmyard Manure and Inorganic Nitrogen on Growth and Yield of Guar
Original Research
A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons to study the effect of Bradyrhizobium inoculation, farmyard manure (FYM), nitrogen (urea) and inoculation plus farmyard manure on growth and yield of guar crop. Four Bradyrhizobium strains were used to inoculate guar seeds (USDA3089, USDA3385, USDA3386 and ENRRI 16A) and two levels of farmyard manure, i.e. 5 (FYM1) and 10 (FYM2) ton ha¯¹. Results indicated that combining Bradyrhizobium inoculation with FYM significantly increased plant height, shoot dry weight, pod dry weight, yield and phosphorus (P) percentages compare to the control and Bradyrhizobium inoculation. However, Bradyrhizobium inoculation significantly increased plant height, shoot dry weight and pod dry weight compare with the control. Sole FYM2 treatment significantly increased shoot dry weight, pod dry weight, plant height, seed yield and seed P percent compare with the control and Bradyrhizobium inoculation. Urea application showed similar results to that of FYM2 except that urea had no significant effect on seed P percent. In conclusion, combined application of FYM and Bradyrhizobium inoculation could be a useful practice in sustaining the growth and yield of guar.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(2), 56-63. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-2-4
Pub. Date: April 01, 2016
21727 Views5691 Downloads5 Likes
Natural Antidiabetic Potential of Salacia chinensis L. (Celastraceae) Based on Morphological, Phytochemical, Physico-chemical and Bioactivity: A Promising Alternative for Salacia reticulata Thw
Original Research
Salacia reticulata Thw. (Celastraceae) is widely used in traditional systems of medicine for the natural control of diabetics. However, S. reticulate is obtained from the wild and hence its popular use creates a huge pressure on its limited supply. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the potential of an alternative natural antidiabetic candidate, Salacia chinensis (Celastraceae), by means of morphological, physico-chemical, phytochemical and bioactivity analyses. Gross morphological characters were compared based on taxonomically important vegetative and reproductive characters of leaf and petiole of both plants. Physico-chemical and phytochemical parameters were performed according to methods described by WHO. Total phenol content (TPC) and, total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined by using Folin–Ciocaltueand aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Radical scavenging activity was investigated by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ABTS+ radical scavenging assays. Results were analyzed by the General Linear Model (GLM) of ANOVA followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). LC50 values of brine shrimp toxicity were generated using probit analysis. The most distinguished morphological features were leaf length, width and leaf margin, which varied significantly between the two species. All tested physico-chemical parameters were within the acceptable levels. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and thin layer chromatographic profiles revealed the presence of all tested compounds and some common spots in both species, respectively. Moreover, both plants exhibited marked levels of radical scavenging activity, brine shrimp toxicity, TFC and TPC in varying levels. Results revealed that all monitored parameters displayed positive results in S. chinensis, thus partially justifying its use as an alternative natural antidiabetic source. This could promote the sustainable utilization of S. reticulata by easing its demand. Further, the generated findings could be effectively utilized for the standardization of S. reticulata and S. chinensis for upgrading the Sri Lankan pharmacopeia.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(2), 49-55. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-2-3
Pub. Date: March 29, 2016
23852 Views7918 Downloads28 Likes
Implications of Human-Wildlife Conflict on Food Security among Smallholder Agro-Pastoralists: A Case of Smallholder Maize (Zea mays) Farmers in Laikipia County, Kenya
Original Research
The agricultural sector is important for achieving food security, employment creation and economic growth, besides supplying raw materials for agro-based industries. However, farmers experience challenges which could undermine agricultural productivity and production such as effects of human-wildlife conflict. Wildlife in Laikipia County move out of their habitats into farmland, thus damage crops. This study sought to determine how wildlife attack and damage influence food security among smallholder maize farmers in Laikipia County. A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was used. Two hundred smallholder maize farmers previously invaded by wildlife were sampled. A questionnaire was administered on the 200 farmers to collect primary data. Secondary data was collected using a document review guide. The questionnaire was piloted in Narok County using 30 agro-pastoralists bordering Maasai Game Reserve. A reliability coefficient of ά=0.85 was adopted because it was more than ά=0.70, which is the acceptable minimum at 0.05 confidence level. Validation of the questionnaire and document review guide was done by 5 agricultural extension experts at Agricultural Education and Extension Department of Egerton University and the pilot testing in Narok County. Data was analysed using the per cent and mode. This study established that human-wildlife conflict is significantly influencing food security among smallholder maize farmers in Laikipia County. This was shown by large maize crop losses of even up to 100% despite the use of various mitigation strategies. It was therefore recommended that a study be undertaken to determine the effectiveness of wildlife mitigation strategies adopted by the farmers in Laikipia County.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(2), 43-48. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-2-2
Pub. Date: March 28, 2016
17820 Views5548 Downloads
An Assessment of Knowledge Level of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) Farmers in Dutse Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria
Original Research
Despite the comparative advantages that Nigeria has in the production of Date palm, the production is still low. It is on this backdrop, that an assessment of the knowledge level of date palm farmers in the country particularly Dutse Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria was embarked on to know their knowledge level in order to develop an appropriate technology for the date palm industry in the country that will bring about increase in production. Multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select one hundred fifteen respondents for the study. The study revealed that Date palm farmers in the study area were in the age bracket of between 41-50 years with a mean of 53.1. All the farmers (100.0%) were male and were of the Islamic faith. The average household size is 10 person/ household. Many of the farmers (52.2%) had no formal education and had put up between 1-20 years of farming. The sources of knowledge on date palm practices were from friends and relatives and they fell into the moderate category of knowledge level of 14.3-18.8.The test of relationship shows that education (X²=22.313; p<0.05) and farm size (r=0.223; p<0.05) are significant with the knowledge level. Research should be emphasized in the area of processing and value addition on the fruits to stimulate production. The extension system in the date palm growing areas should be strengthened to include date palm component in their mandate and the farmers’ group meetings should be used to disseminate date palm technology.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016, 4(2), 36-42. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-4-2-1
Pub. Date: March 14, 2016
16615 Views3899 Downloads