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Volume 3, Issue 4

Comparative Growth Response of Maize on Amended Sediment from the Odaw River and Cultivated Soil
Original Research
Pot experiment to determine the agronomic performance of maize was carried out in a randomized complete block with nine pots per block and three replicates using sediment from Odaw River and soil from cultivated field in Ghana. The sediment only (BS), soil only (S) and soil-sediment composite (S+BS) were each amended with poultry manure (PM), cow dung (CD) and biochar (BC), then maize (Obatanpa variety) grown for 45 days. Plant height, leaf length, girth and width were measured weekly. The dredged sediment from the Odaw River was found to be good and quite similar to the soil from the cultivated field in terms of organic matter, organic carbon and macro nutrients. For the sediment, the heavy metals comprising of Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd had concentrations (mg/l) 3.48, <0.005, 0.073, 0.010 and <0.002 respectively. For the soil only the heavy metal concentration of Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd had concentrations (mg/l) 7.13, <0.005, 0.348, 0.067 and <0.002 respectively. Maize performed well on the amended soil than the amended sediment from the Odaw River. The fresh shoot weight of maize grown on the cultivated soil at the end of the 45 days period was between 101.8 g and 182.3 g and that of the sediment was 56.0 g and 131.0 g, respectively. The soil-sediment amended treatment showed an enhanced growth but slightly lower than the soil amended treatments at the end of the growth period. Individual growth parameters measured at the end of the experiment also showed growth pattern which followed the overall growth order. Heavy metal concentrations in both the sediment and the cultivated soil were within tolerable limits, though the soil from the cultivated field had higher concentrations.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(4), 143-147. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-4-5
Pub. Date: September 07, 2015
17875 Views5470 Downloads1 Likes
Sprouting Value Index: A New Concept in Evaluation of Rooting of Cuttings
Original Research
The vigor of indole 3-butyric acid (IBA) induced rooting of stem cuttings and its suitable sprouting/rooting medium can be evaluated using sprouting value index, which is developed in Pongamia pinnata, a nitrogen fixing, avenue and medicinal tree species of the tropics. Field studies were carried out using three rooting medium at a location in Central Kerala, Peninsular India, during the months of February (P1), June (P2), and October (P3) in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Field trials were performed using 300 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm IBA. The control cuttings do not recorded rooting. The results obtained indicate high SVI (sprouting value index) for aerial shoot cuttings planted in root trainers with coir pith compost (RTCP) with all the three concentration of IBA applied. Sprouting percentage was increased and the speed of completion of sprouting/rooting initiation decreased by the use of IBA treatment. Increased CWR and SUP percentages indicate defects in management practices, dormancy and or the genotype of the cultivar.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(4), 139-142. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-4-4
Pub. Date: August 25, 2015
14616 Views4589 Downloads6 Likes2 Citations
Effect of Biochar from Different Origin onPhysio-Chemical Properties of Soil and Yield of Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.) at Paklihawa, Rupandehi, Nepal
Original Research
A field experiment was conducted at the Horticulture farm of Paklihawa Campus, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rupandehi district to observe the effect of biochar from different origin on physio-chemical properties of soil and yield of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) and evaluate them. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. A set up constituted of various treatments viz. rice husk biochar, poultry manure biochar, sheep manure biochar, farm yard manure biochar and wood biochar along with the control group. Results showed that number of pod/plant, number of seed/pod and biomass (ton/ha) were significantly affected by application of biochar of different origin. Application of rice husk biochar had higher effect on number of pod/plant, no of seed/pod, biomass (ton/ha) and green pod yield (ton/ha). Biochar of Poultry manure and of sheep manure had almost similar effect on soil nitrogen as of other types of biochar, while higher effect on soil phosphorus and potassium as compared to other biochar. Biochar of sheep manure had higher organic matter content and carbon percentage in soil than all other application of biochar. Application of all types of biochar showed highly significant results on bulk density and particle density. It was found that biochar of rice husk had greater particle density 2.61 g/cc and all the application had decreased bulk density except that of biochar prepared from wood. Thus, the soil where biochar was applied was found to be of better quality than that of the controlled one where no biochar was used. These results suggest that biochar could be one of the best options in poor quality soil and where burning practices are mostly adopted for cleaning the field.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(4), 129-138. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-4-3
Pub. Date: August 10, 2015
36036 Views11178 Downloads12 Likes
Use of Vermicompost as Supplement to Pine Bark for Seedling Production in Nurseries
Original Research
Vermicompost, used as soil additives or as components of greenhouse bedding plant container media, have been found to improve seed germination, enhanced seedling growth and development, and increased overall plant productivity. As a result, small scale farmers can improve their capacity to produce vegetable seedlings using vermicompost amended potting mixes as it is more available to them than pine bark. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of different substitutions of vermicompost potting mixes for seedling nursery production as an alternative and supplement to pine bark. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) seeds were planted in six treatment groups including vermicompost of 20%, vermicompost of 50%, vermicompost of 75% and vermicompost of 100%. Pine bark, sand and vlei soils were incorporated into the experiment making up the different supplements. Results revealed that the tallest plants were recorded from pine bark amended mixtures with vermicompost substitution of 20% and 50%. Fresh weight of roots of plants from 100% vermicompost media revealed nonsignificant (P>0.05) difference when compared to treatment with 100% pine bark. However, the same treatment of 100% pine bark gave a significantly (P<0.05) lower fresh weight of leaves in comparison to 100% vermicompost. Seedlings from 100% vermicompost treatment had the highest stem thickness. There were no significant differences for the planting media treatments applied with respect to dry weight of both the leaves and roots. A ratio of 1:1 vermicompost and pine bark gave the best results. These finding indicate that vermicompost at suitable levels may promote plant growth and development probably via the modified nutrition. Instead of using vermicompost alone, its use in mixtures with pine bark, or vlei or sand may give the same effect.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(4), 123-128. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-4-2
Pub. Date: August 05, 2015
12665 Views4014 Downloads5 Likes1 Citations
Decline in Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) Populations in Central New Jersey over a One Year Period
Original Research
Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) is the primary food source of the eastern North American Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), and numbers have been steadily declining. Between 2012 to 2013 we conducted a survey measure to milkweed numbers in Montgomery Township New Jersey. The purpose of this survey was to examine and measure the change in milkweed numbers after a 1 year period. In October 2012, publicly accessible areas of Montgomery Township were surveyed. This same survey was repeated in 2013, and the change in mean number of milkweed plants per plot recorded. Global positioning satellite data were collected using GPS tracker 1.0 for iPhone. All plots from publicly accessible areas were measured except one plot that was intentionally cultivated. Apart from the single intentionally cultivated plot, only 2 plots remained from the original 30 in the 2012 survey (6%). From the original 302 stalks, only 87 remained one year later (a decrease of 71.9 %). A total of 3 new plots were found, indicating new growth. There was a notable decrease in the mean number of milkweed stalks per plot from 2012 (10.4 ± 2.3) to 2013 (4.3 ± 2.4). This decrease was statistically significant at the 5% level (P = 0.03958). Over a one year period, a statistically significant decline in milkweed plants was observed in central New Jersey. More should be done to conserve milkweed populations.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(4), 119-122. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-4-1
Pub. Date: July 12, 2015
9770 Views4108 Downloads5 Likes