Volume 2, Issue 6A

Conservation Agriculture Based Practices Affect the Weed Dynamics in Spring Maize
Special Issue
In order to find out the alternative methods for the weed management in spring maize (Zea mays L.) in Terai Nepal, a study was carried out in conservation agriculture under maize-rice cropping system in Rampur, Nepal during 2013. The weeds number and dry weight were compared in tillage methods viz. conventional and no tillage; residue management viz. residue kept and removed; fertilizer doses viz. research recommended doses and farmer dose; and weed management viz. herbicide use and manual weeding. No tillage, residue kept and atrazine applied @ 1.5 kg a.i ha-1 as pre-emergence had significantly lower number and lower dry weight of grasses and broadleaf weeds as compared to conventional tillage, residue removed and manual weeding at an interval of one month. While the number and dry weight of sedges was not significantly influenced by tillage, residue and fertilizer management. Manual weeding had significantly less number and weight of sedges over atrazine use. The total number and dry weight of weeds were less in no tillage, residue retention and atrazine use over the conventional tillage, residue removed and manual weeding. It is concluded that no tillage, residue retention and atrazine use can be the alternative technologies for weed management.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 25-33. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-5
Pub. Date: January 04, 2015
30304 Views8553 Downloads43 Likes
Conservation Agriculture as an Alternative for Soil Erosion Control and Crop Production in Steep-slopes Regions Cultivated by Small-scale Farmers in Motozintla, Mexico
Special Issue
Agricultural activities in steep-slope regions of the world have been increasing in recent years. When annual crops are produced in these regions, high soil erosion rates become a constant threat. An extended body of literature proposes reforestation or plantations with perennial crops as potential solutions. However, such approaches fail to meet the needs of the small-scale farmers who rely on annual crops to produce the lion’s share of their food. Another commonly used measure to tackle erosion is the construction of physical barriers – a solution that demands substantial investment, for both implementation and maintenance. Analternative solution is conservation agriculture (CA), which is a cropping system based on three principles: 1) minimal soil disturbance; 2) crop rotations and/or intercropping, and 3) permanent soil cover through crop residue management. Using longitudinal statistical analysis this research – based on survey data (154 observations) collected in 1994 and 2008 within two ejidos of Motozintla in the state of Chiapas, Mexico – found that under CA, maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yields remained at minimum consistent, and in some cases increased over time. Maize yields reached 3.3 ton ha-1, whilst bean reached 262 kg ha-1. Maize yields were also consistently higher than the long-term state's average (1987-2012) of 2.3 ton ha-1. Moreover, 90% of the farmers perceived that CA improved soil fertility and 99% observed that CA effectively controlled erosion. The traditional system in these two ejidos presented a number of enabling characteristics for facilitating CA implementation: no mechanisation was being utilized, intercropping was already a common practice, and the main competitor for crop residue use (ruminants) could eventually be substituted for other livestock such as pigs. This research provides evidence to demonstrate that long-term adoption of CA in a steep-slope region can help to control soil erosion whilst allowing farmers to produce their staple crops.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 18-24. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-4
Pub. Date: January 04, 2015
23637 Views7356 Downloads37 Likes
Maize Production under No-Tillage System in Nepal
Special Issue
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important staple food crop after rice in Nepal. In Nepal, maize is grown under intensive tillage ssystem of 2-3 ploughings for land preparation and atleast two intercultural operations for weeding and earthling-up operation. Alternative to conventional tillage system, no-till system is a specialized type of conservation tillage consisting of a one-pass planting and fertilizer operation in which the soil and the surface residues are minimally disturbed. No-tillage maize production conserves soil and water and reduces capital investment in machinery for land preparations and intercultural operations, but most important to many producers, no-tillage can improve maize yields. However, very limited works have been done so far in Nepal. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this article to highlight the importance of no till in maize in the hills of Nepal and some of the practical tips to adopt the no- till maize production system in Nepal.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 13-17. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-3
Pub. Date: January 04, 2015
17887 Views5345 Downloads34 Likes1 Citations
Productivity and Economic Assessment of Maize and Soybean Intercropping under Various Tillage and Residue Levels in Chitwan, Nepal
Special Issue
A field experiment was conducted at National Maize Research Program (NMRP) in Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during May-Nov 2013. The experiment was laid out in strip- split design with twelve treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of two different tillage methods namely conventional tillage (CT) and zero tillage (ZT) as vertical factor, two different levels of residue (residue kept and residue removed) as horizontal factor and three different levels of cropping systems namely sole maize, sole soybean and maize + soybean intercropping system as sub plot factor. Manakamana-3 and Puja were the variety of maize and soybean used for the experiment respectively. The results revealed that the grain yield and yield attributing components of maize and soybean was significantly influenced by cropping systems but not by tillage methods and residue levels. The grain yield of maize obtained under sole cropping (4.76 t ha-1) was significantly higher than maize + soybean intercropping system (4.27 t ha-1). Similarly, the grain yield of sole soybean was significantly higher (1.99 t ha-1) than that of maize + soybean intercropping system (1.26 t ha-1). Moreover, the total grain yield equivalent of 6.45 t ha-1 obtained from sole soybean system was significantly higher and was followed by maize and soybean intercropping system with 4.99 t ha-1. Whereas, sole maize produced significantly the lowest maize grain yield equivalent of 3.47 t ha-1. Significantly, higher LER (1.38) was recorded with maize and soybean intercropping system over sole system (1.0). Tillage and residue levels did not affect the gross and net return and B: C ratio but the effect was found obvious due to intercropping system. Significantly higher net return (NRs.140.49 thousands ha-1) was recorded in intercropping of maize with soybean as compared to sole soybean (NRs. 89.85 thousands ha-1) which was at par with sole maize system (NRs. 80.91 thousands ha-1). Maize and soybean intercropping system produced significantly the higher (2.47) B: C ratio than sole soybean (2.28) and was at par with sole maize (2.18).
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 6-12. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-2
Pub. Date: January 04, 2015
28505 Views9912 Downloads44 Likes
Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in Rice-Wheat System under Conservation and Conventional Agriculture in Western Chitwan, Nepal
Special Issue
Soil organic carbon plays the crucial role in maintaining soil quality. The impact and rate of SOC sequestration in CA and conventional agriculture is still in investigation in this environment. A field experiment was initiated in 2011/12 and continued up to 2012/13 to compare the organic carbon buildup in the soil due to conservation and conventional agriculture. The soil organic carbon data represents the cumulative after five crop cycle. The treatments consisted conventionally tilled direct seeded rice followed by zero tilled wheat, conventionally tilled transplanted rice followed by conventionally tilled wheat, zero tilled direct seeded rice followed by zero tilled direct seeded wheat without residue retention, zero tilled direct seeded rice followed by direct seeded wheat with residue retention, permanent raised bed of rice followed by wheat without residue retention and permanent raised bed of rice followed by wheat with residue retention in randomized complete block design with three replications. About 4 t ha-1 of standing rice and wheat crop and about 70% residue of moongbean was retained for succeeding crop in retained treatments. Soil samples from each treatments were collected from two soil depths (0-20 and 20-40cm) and analyzed. Result showed that, soil organic carbon buildup was affected significantly by tillage and residue level in upper depth of 0-20 cm but not in lower depth of 20-40 cm. Higher SOC content of 19.44 g kg-1 of soil was found in zero tilled residue retained plots followed by 18.53 g kg-1 in permanently raised bed with residue retained plots. Whereas, the lowest level of SOC content of 15.86 g kg-1 of soil were found in puddled transplanted rice followed by wheat planted under conventionally tilled plots. Zero tilled residue retained plots sequestrated 0.91 g kg-1 yr-1 SOC in the year 2012/13 which was 22.63% higher over the conventionally tilled residue removed plots after five seasons of experimentation. Therefore, CA in rice-wheat system can help directly in building–up of soil organic carbon and improve the fertility status of soil.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 1-5. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-1
Pub. Date: January 04, 2015
17113 Views5294 Downloads35 Likes
Preface to Special Issue on Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification
Special Issue
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(6A), 0-0. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-6A-0
Pub. Date: January 04, 2015
11498 Views3954 Downloads36 Likes