Volume 2, Issue 3

Efficacy of Three Protectants, Primiphos Methyl, Piper guineense and Eugenia aromatica, against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae) on Stored Chips of Three Musa spp
Original Research
Musa spp are highly perishable crops with serious storage problems. Transformation to chips and flour has been identified as the only means of keeping them for a relatively longer period of time. This transformation, however, exposes them to attack by many storage pests including Tribolium castaneum Herbst. To get protection from these pests, in the past, synthetic pesticides were used with some measure of success. However, residue accumulation, toxicity to man and pest resistance caused by arbitrary use of synthetic pesticides have inspired this research into a healthy and less toxic alternative control measures for stored produce pests of chips. This experiment was conducted at the Department of Crop Science Research Laboratory, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (06o 52̍ N, 07o 24̍ E; 447.26m a.s.l.), Nigeria from February to May, 2012 to compare the efficacy of powdered extracts of two botanical materials (Guinea pepper seeds (Piper giuneense Schum & Thonn) and Cloves flower buds (Eugenia aromatica Baill.) and a synthetic pesticide (Primiphos methyl 2% dust) against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae) on chips of three Musa spp (Agbagba, Obino’l ewai and Cooking banaana). The experiment was laid out as 8 × 3 factorial (8 levels of protectants by 3 levels of chips) in completely randomised design (CRD) with three replications. Results revealed that actellic (Primiphos methyl) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher mortality effect on adult T. castaneum than the other protectants. Chips treated with 2g cloves had significantly (p < 0.05) lower percentage loss and lower rate of damage than all the protectants but its effects was similar to that of actellic. 2g cloves therefore compared favourably with the synthetic pesticides against T. castaneum in chips storage.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 136-141. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-9
Pub. Date: June 12, 2014
15371 Views6411 Downloads33 Likes1 Citations
Evaluation of Onion Varieties for Productivity Performance in Botswana
Original Research
Onion varieties were evaluated for adaptability to the climatic conditions in Botswana. Six varieties of onion were planted under a complete randomized block design experiment with four replications at farmers’ field in Botswana (Southern Africa). The quantitative data on yield of onion varieties and, farmers perception on the varieties were collected. All the varieties were harvested at their maturity (80% tops down) and then graded and weighed into six categories of bulbs: small weight, double weight, thin weight, bolters weight, marketable weight and total weight. Inferential and descriptive statistical methods were used for data analysis where by two ways analysis of variance and ranking scales were applied. It was concluded that all the six varieties namely; Arad, Galil, Hanna, Shahar, Texas Grano 502 P.R.R. and Red Creole contributed differently to the total yield, marketable yield and percentage marketable yield. Onion variety Hanna followed by Shahar produced the highest marketable yield whereas Galil variety gave the lowest marketable yield. Despite the fact that Texas Grano variety produced the highest total yield and has been a common and popular onion variety in Botswana, it was recommended that farmers should not grown Texas Grano variety as it produced the lowest percentage (60%) of marketable yield. Based on the yield performance and the farmer’s perception, Hanna followed by Shahar varieties were found to be the best performing onion variety and therefore, government should promote these onion varieties for cultivation in Botswana. Government can import to ensure the availability of Hanna and Shahar varieties so that farmers can be motivated for adoption of these varieties for commercial production. The effects of different planting dates on the yield of onion varieties can be considered for future research.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 129-135. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-8
Pub. Date: June 10, 2014
26784 Views12086 Downloads37 Likes4 Citations
Effect of Weed Control Methods on Weeds and Wheat (TriticumAestivum L.) Yield
Original Research
A field experiment was conducted from June to December during 2010/11 crop season at HARC to study the effect of herbicides rates on weed dynamics and yield of wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) variety “HAR 604” in randomized complete block design with three replications. the herbicides rates: clodinafop-propargyl(0.065,0.080, 0.105kgha-1) and isoproturon (1.00, 1.25, 1.50kgha-1), hand weeding at tillering and weedy checkwere used. The crop was infested with AvenafatuaL. and PhalarisparadoxaL. among grass weeds andCayluseaabyssinicaMeisn,C. trigynaL., Chenopodium album L., Corrigoialacapensis Wild, Guizotiascabra(Vis) Chiov, Oxalis latifoliaHBK, PolygonumnepalenseL., RaphanusraphanistrumL., SpergulaarvensisL. and Tagetesminuta L. among broadleaved weeds. Hand weeding followed isoproturon at 1.50 kg ha-1 significantly reduced density and dry weight of weeds. Among herbicides, isoproturon provided better control of broadleaved and total weeds, whereas; clodinafop-propargyl proved better than isoproturon in controlling grass weeds. Hand weeding and hoeing at tillering resulted in lowest weed dry weight. Highest grain yield (2289.4 kg ha-1) in was recorded in hand weeding followed by isoproturon at 1.5kg ha-1 (2177.3 kg ha-1). The highest straw yield was recorded in hand weeding followed by isoproturon 1.50 kg ha-1, and harvest index was also maximum with hand weeding. Maximum N-uptake was also recorded in these treatments. Post emergence herbicides and /or hand weeding and hoeing at tillering can further enhance the weed suppressive effect of the crop.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 124-128. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-7
Pub. Date: May 20, 2014
33269 Views14619 Downloads39 Likes4 Citations
Development of Powered Groundnut Harvester for Small and Medium Holdings in North Kordofan State in Western Sudan
Original Research
A Powered groundnut harvesting machine was designed and fabricated. The optimum machine diggers were selected using computer simulation method in ANSYS 11 program. The machine was tested in sandy and clayey sand soil. It was found that the effective time and total time recorded by the machine in sandy soil were lower than in clayey sand soil by 0.050 hr. Fuel consumption rate in sandy soil was lower than that in clayey sand soil by 0.7 L / ha. Machine field speed in sandy soil was higher than speed in clayey sand soil by 0.69 km / hr, it was also found that the values of machine theoretical field capacity, effective field capacity in sandy soil were higher than the values in clayey sand soil by 0.061 ha / h and 0.048 ha / h respectively while field efficiency in clayey sand soil was higher than that in sandy soil by 1.2 %. The differences were significant at 0.05 level and it can be concluded that the machine is efficient in harvesting the groundnut crop particularly in clayey sand soil. Hydraulic system and gear box were needed to enhance maneuverability and to control the digging speed of the machine.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 119-123. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-6
Pub. Date: May 18, 2014
33843 Views16862 Downloads37 Likes
Biotechnological Advances for Animal Nutrition and Feed Improvement
Review Article
Shortage of animal feed in most developing countries and the increasing cost of feed ingredients mean that there is a need to improve feed utilization. Although developing countries accommodate a majority of the world’s people, there is a risk that biotechnology research and development may by-pass their requirements. However, there are beginnings of using biotechnology in animal production particularly animal nutrition these days. The advances of biotechnology in recent years allowed the use of non-toxic fungi to improve fibrous feeds like straw or poor quality roughages. In particular, the white rot fungi have been used because of their ability to delignify the plant material. In addition to antibiotics, a wide variety of feed additives, are known to modify rumen fermentation. They include components that can reduce methanogenesis, enhance propionic acid production, reduce protein degradation, improve microbial protein synthesis and inhibit protozoa. Among such additives are antibiotics, microbes, and specific substrates like oligosaccharides. In addition, effective enzyme preparations can now be produced in large quantities and relatively inexpensively. Therefore, supplementation of the diet as a means of improving nutritive value is becoming commonplace. The ultimate goal of using biotechnology in animal nutrition is to improve the plane of nutrition through increasing availability of nutrients from feed and to reduce the wastage of the feed. Their potential in developing countries is less than in developed countries, mainly because the successful application usually requires better feed quality and management.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 115-118. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-5
Pub. Date: May 13, 2014
25028 Views10634 Downloads34 Likes2 Citations
Some Physiological Parameters as Screening Tools for Drought Tolerance in Bread Wheat Lines (Triticum aestivam L.)
Original Research
Two greenhouse experiments were carried out at the Institute of Biological Production Systems, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing seasons to study the influence of the osmotic adjustment (OA) capacity, relative water content (RWC) and specific leaf area (SLA) on tolerance to drought in 22 breeding lines, two parents and tolerant cultivar (Sahel 1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivam L.) under drought conditions. Differences were seen in of the OA, RWC and of the different genotypes. Mean over all of OA, RWC and for breeding lines were -0.51 Mpa, 83.28% and 116.56 cm²g-1, respectively. Four of the breeding lines showed the greatest osmotic adjustment capacities, high RWC and good values under drought stress conditions better than the tolerant cultivar. The heritability of OA, RWC and was 0.56, 0.49 and 0.88, respectively. The results indicated that osmotic adjustment, as well as RWC and could be used as screening tools for drought resistant bread wheat genotypes in the greenhouse. This study also demonstrated the appropriate greenhouse screening methodology in this regard.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 109-114. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-4
Pub. Date: May 13, 2014
23772 Views10515 Downloads32 Likes
Effect of Delayed Cassava Planting on Yields and Economic Returns of a Cassava-Groundnut Intercrop in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Original Research
Cassava intercropping is a common practice in sub-Saharan Africa. In terms of growth pattern, canopy development and nutrient demand, grain legumes are well suited for intercropping with cassava. Due to the inter-specific competition for growth resources, the relative planting time of the component crops has been considered as one of the important management practices for intercropping system productivity. Little information exists on the effect of cassava planting time on yields and economic returns of a cassava-legume intercrop. This study investigated the effect of relative planting times of cassava on yields and economic returns of a cassava-groundnut intercrop. Researcher-managed, field trials were installed in Bas-Congo Province in two consecutive seasons using four different planting times of cassava after the groundnuts. The results indicated that cassava planting time did not affect both grain and biomass yields of groundnut. When cassava was planted 3 weeks after the groundnuts, cassava storage root yields were significantly (P = 0.029) decreased by 48 to 60 % (9.3 to 11.3 t ha-1) over cassava planted at the same time as groundnut. The net revenue of cassava planted 3 weeks after the groundnut was significantly (P = 0.002) decreased by about 70 % over that of cassava planted at the same time or 2 weeks after the groundnuts. Maximum net revenue of $ 1877 ha-1 with a benefit-cost ratio of 2.42 was reported in the treatment of cassava planted at the same time. Benefit-cost ratio was favourable for the pure cassava (3.2 to 3.8) but not favourable for the pure groundnut. Cassava intercropping with groundnut had significantly (P = 0.019) lower profits than the pure cassava. The results suggest that cassava should be planted at the same time or not later than 2 weeks after the groundnuts to maximize yields and economic returns in a cassava-groundnut intercrop.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 101-108. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-3
Pub. Date: May 13, 2014
24251 Views10384 Downloads34 Likes
Nodulation Study and Characterization of Rhizobial Microsymbionts of Forage and Pasture Legumes in South Africa
Original Research
Bacterial strains formerly isolated from the root nodules of indigenous and exotic forage legumes and preserved at the South African Rhizobium Culture Collection (SARCC) were tested for nodulation of their original host. The nodulation authentication trial was conducted following the Koch’s postulate experiment under glasshouse condition and revealed that all bacterial strains are root nodule micro-symbionts of the forage legumes from which they were initially isolated. Nodulation and improved growth of the legumes was achieved by the tested strains with statistically significant (p = 0.05) increase in plant biomass and nodule number in comparison with the un-inoculated controls. To elucidate their identity and phylogenetic relatedness, the effective strains were selected and characterized by means of the 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis. The analysis confirmed that the isolates nodulating Macrotyloma axillare, Desmodium uncinatum, Indigofera spicata var. spicata and Stylosanthus gracillis predominantly belong to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Vigna unguiculata and Vigna sp. were nodulated by strains belonging to members of the genus Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium. The results obtained in this study provide baseline information in the investigation of the legume-rhizobium interaction on South African soils, and are also of paramount importance in the selection and development of commercial rhizobium inoculants for sustainable production of forage and other essential legumes.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 93-100. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-2
Pub. Date: May 02, 2014
29259 Views13841 Downloads33 Likes2 Citations
Effect of Different Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Growth, Dry Matter Yield and Yield Components of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Original Research
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important cash crop and protein source for farmers in many parts of Ethiopia. However, its production is limited by phosphorus fertilizer. Therefore, field experiment was conducted at the Arba Minch farm field the main rain season of 2011 to investigate the responses of common bean to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer and its effect on growth, dry matter yield and yield component of the crop. Five phosphorus rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40kg ha-1) were used as treatments. Red Wolaita common bean variety was used as planting material. Recommended rate of N (60 kg/ha) was applied to all treatments. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The effect of phosphorus was significantly increased dry matter yield, yield components and growth parameters such as leaf area and number of branches per plant, whereas its effect was not significant on plant height. Based on result obtained, application of 20P kgha-1is recommended for better production of common bean at Arba Minch and similar areas which have the same soil property.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 88-92. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-1
Pub. Date: April 23, 2014
45020 Views17281 Downloads43 Likes12 Citations