Volume 2, Issue 2

Biological and Taxonomic Study of Agriculturally Important Noctuid Pests of Kashmir
Original Research
The present work incorporates thorough investigations on Biology and Taxonomic studies of some insect pests belonging to family Noctuidae, damaging agricultural crops (cereals, vegetables, fruits, oilseeds fodders, medicinal plants and forest range plantation) at different sites viz., Afferwatt; 4000m, Sheeshnag; 3500m, Aru; 2800m, Chandanwari; 3000m, Daksum; 2800m, Bangus valley; 3500m, Sadna Pass; 3500m, Doodpather, 2870m, Dood Ganga, 2600m, of Kashmir Himalaya. The pest immature stages were collected alive from field in different types of collection containers and reared in the Biosystematics Laboratory of SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir), India. Adults were also collected with the help of light traps. The experiment was conducted during 2011-2012 and resulted a total of 69 noctuid adult pest individuals, six noctuid pest species were reared viz., Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius), Cucullia verbasci Linnaeus, Heliothis armigera (Hubner), Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), Garella ruficirra Hampson, and Amphipyra monolitha Guenee. Taxonomic study of these six species was also carried out.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(2), 82-87. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-8
Pub. Date: April 09, 2014
22993 Views8168 Downloads32 Likes3 Citations
Effect of Inorganic and Organic Amendments on Yield of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta), and on Soil Properties
Original Research
The response of cocoyam (Colocasia esuclenta (L.) Schott) to various treatments(Twenty combinations of Treatments) of inorganic and organic amendments were studied under field conditions in 2011 and 2012 growing seasons at farm of the Regional Centre of Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, (CTCRI), Bhubaneswar. Odisha, India. Various enzymatic activities were studied for optimization cornel production. The physio chemical properties of soil quality with effect of integrated use of lime, biological, inorganic and organics on soil micro-flora were statistically analyzed for cocoyam production in lowland of Eastern India.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(2), 70-81. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-7
Pub. Date: April 03, 2014
28982 Views9493 Downloads44 Likes5 Citations
Efficacy of Traditional and Improved Granaries in Protecting Maize from Prostephanus truncatus in Small Holder Farming Storage System in Makonde District, Zimbabwe
Original Research
The study was carried out in Makonde District, located 17°21' S and 30°12' E in Mashonaland West Province to assess the efficiency of improved and traditional granaries in protecting traditional and hybrid maize from Prostephanus truncatus. Ten farmers were randomly selected from 20 wards in the District. Multistage cluster sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used. Amongst the 10 selected farmers, 5 were using traditional granaries and the other 5 were using improved granaries. Four farmers used in the study stored a traditional maize variety (Hickory King) and six farmers stored a hybrid variety (SC 513). Demographic data on the farmers was captured on a questionnaire which was conducted at the beginning of the study. The questionnaire had information on type of storage granary, age of farmers, type of stored maize variety, amount of maize stored, major prevalent pests and grain management practices. Hybrid and traditional maize varieties stored in selected improved and traditional granaries. The maize varieties were first fumigated for a week using phosphine tablets and granaries were first disinfected using Deltamethrin (2.4% w.p) at 1.5g/l water at 20ml/m2. Fumigated traditional and hybrid maize were then stored in disinfected granaries. Maize grains were stored for 6 months. Traditional, intermediate traditional, intermediate improved, improved granaries had 36%, 16%, 30% and 18% utilization amongst farmers respectively. Age of farmers showed a significant influence on the type of granary used to store their grain. Sitophilus zeamais, Prostephanus truncatus, Sitotroga cereallela were most prevalent insect species. The relative abundance of these pests in the granaries was 100%, 70% and 85% respectively. Hybrid maize (SC 513) was re-infested with Prostephanus truncatus after 3 months during storage in traditional granaries. The relative abundance of pests in a granary was influenced by the farmer duration of storage and the treatment. It was concluded that traditional granaries used by farmers were found to be prone to Prostephanus truncatus infestation as compared to improved granaries. There was a significant difference in the variations between granary type, maize variety and levels of Prostephanus truncatus infestation.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(2), 63-69. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-6
Pub. Date: March 31, 2014
23483 Views7601 Downloads33 Likes1 Citations
Selection for Drought Tolerance in Wheat Population (Triticum aestivum L.) by Independent Culling Levels
Original Research
Field experiments were carried out at Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University, Egypt to estimate observed and expected response to selection and genetic parameters after two cycles of phenotypic selection in F2 population. Highly significant differences among F3 and F4 families under normal and drought stress conditions for no. of spikes/plant (NS), 100-Seed weight (SW), plant height (PH), days to heading (DH) and grain yield/plant (GY) were observed. Direct response to selection for NS, SW and PH were positive and highly significant with values of 15.16, 26.34 and 6.18 %, respectively compared with check cultivar ( 1) in F4 generation under normal conditions. Meanwhile, under drought conditions, they were 14.39, 20.35 and 6.35%, respectively. Correlated response to selection was significant and positive for GY compared with check cultivar under two conditions. While, it was very significant and negative for HD under normal and drought stress. Expected response to selection for NS, SW and PH were (1.45 and 1.62 spikes/plant), (0.37 and 0.23 gm) and (6.21 and 5.90 cm), respectively in F4 under normal and water stress conditions, respectively. High broad sense heritability values for NS, SW and PH was obtained under normal and drought stress in F3 and F4 generations. Narrow sense heritability in F4 were (48.24 and 55.31%), (53.34 and 43.43%) and (52.12 and 48.73%) for NS, SW and PH, respectively, under normal and drought stress, respectively. Positive and significant correlation between three characters (no. of spikes/pant, 100 kernel weight and plant height) and grain yield/plant under normal and drought stress conditions. Thus, direct selection of these characters should be of major concern for increased grain yield under two conditions. Drought susceptibility index (DSI) showed that four families were superior for drought tolerance and had high grain yield under drought stress in F4 generations. These genotypes could be used as source of drought tolerance/or factors contributing to general adaptation.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(2), 56-62. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-5
Pub. Date: March 30, 2014
24432 Views8873 Downloads35 Likes1 Citations
Responses of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to Coloured Polyethylene Films in Storage of Musa Chips
Original Research
Problems associated with synthetic pesticides have necessitated the search for an alternative pest control method. The effect of six coloured polyethylene films on Tribolium castaneum infestation on stored chips was studied in the Laboratory, from February to May, 2012. Three Musa spp (Agbagba, Obino’l ewai and cooking banana) were used. Dried chips (20 g) of each Musa spp were weighed into six different coloured perforated polyethylene bags (blue, red, yellow, green, black, and transparent) after further drying to constant moisture content in the oven. Ten adult beetles, comprising 5 males and 5 females were introduced into each bag tightly closed using rubber band. The experiment was a 6 × 3 factorial (6 colours polyethylene films by 3 Musa spp) laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Results showed that there were significant differences amongst the three Musa species on the survival, progeny production and damage caused by T. castaneum. Survival counts of adult T. castaneum on chips stored in various coloured polyethylene bags within the period of 21 days did not differ significantly from one another. Generally all the coloured films reduced the abundance of T. castaneum on chips more than the colourless (transparent) films. Red coloured polybags significantly reduced beetles infestations and retained the highest weight of chips up to three months after infestation. Damage on chips stored in red coloured bags was significantly lower than those of yellow, green and transparent colours but did not differ with those of blue and black. Chips stored in transparent bags had the highest number of beetles and sustained the highest damage than other coloured polybags.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(2), 51-55. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-4
Pub. Date: March 21, 2014
23825 Views9052 Downloads34 Likes
In Vitro Screening of Bacillus Isolates for Biological Control of Early Blight Disease of Tomato in Shambat Soil
Original Research
Rhizosphere bacteria are one of the most potential biological control agents in the plant disease protection. Bacillus species as a group offer several advantages over other bacteria for protection against pathogens because of their ability to form endospores, and because of the broad-spectrum activity of their antibiotics. Five soil samples from tomato rhizosphere were collected from shambat area, Khartoum State, Sudan. Bacillus isolates were isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato to use as natural bio-control agents. They were screened for antagonism in vitro against Alternaria alternata causal agents of early blight disease of tomato. Serial dilution technique was adopted for the isolation of Bacillus species. Only 27 out of 45 Bacillus isolates showed antagonistic properties. Four out of the 27 isolates showed antagonism (Bacillus B25, B35, B41, B45) were identified to the species level by bacteriological assay (morphological and biochemical tests).
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(2), 47-50. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-3
Pub. Date: March 16, 2014
24059 Views8728 Downloads33 Likes9 Citations
Seed Treatment with Salicylic Acid Enhance Drought Tolerance in Capsicum
Original Research
Salicylic acid is a natural chemical used to enhance biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In our experiment we studied about the effect of salicylic acid on the growth of the capsicum under water stress condition. Four concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mM) of salicylic acid (SA) were applied through seed soaked method. Pretreatment with salicylic acid improved the majority of physiological and morphological parameters measured in capsicum seedling and plants. Results showed that SA treatment reduced the injury rating value, electrolyte leakage and increased proline content in seedlings, the dry matter of plants and ultimately yield. The best drought protection observed when the seeds were soaked in 0.50 mM SA.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(2), 42-46. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-2
Pub. Date: March 14, 2014
19099 Views6942 Downloads32 Likes3 Citations
Computer Modeling for Prediction of Implement Field Performance Variables
Original Research
Size selection of agricultural machinery must necessarily base on anticipated performance and anticipated cost. In field machinery selection, the most pertinent variable is size or capacity of the machine. A computer program was developed in C++ programming language, to predicted implement performance parameters are total field time, theoretical field capacity, effective field capacity and field efficiency for 1.0, 1.5 and 2 m width implement at operation speed of 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 and 6 km/hr. Program was built, compiled and was then debugged. It was found that as speed and implement width increased, the total field time decreased while theoretical field capacity and effective field capacity increased and field efficiency decreased. The highest field efficiency was 85.5% and it was recorded by implement width of 2 m at 4.5 km/hr speed while the lowest field efficiency was 80.7% and it was recorded by implement width of 1 m 6 km/hr. It was concluded that width of plow found to has higher effect than plow operating speed on increasing the effective field capacity, consequently, the field efficiency.
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World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(2), 37-41. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-1
Pub. Date: March 12, 2014
28377 Views9179 Downloads32 Likes1 Citations