Volume 11, Issue 3

Functional Properties, Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Seeds of Selected Cucurbit Species
Original Research
The study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), proximate composition and mineral composition in seeds of selected cucurbit species, which include Cucumber, Pumpkin, Crookneck pumpkin, Watermelon, Snakegourd, Ash gourd, Bottle gourd and Kekiri. The Folin-Ciocalteu method, a colorimetric method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used to determine TPC, TFC and TAC respectively. On the other hand, the AOAC method and Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometric method were used for proximate composition and mineral composition, respectively. The results showed that seeds of watermelon had the highest TPC (1.97 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g DW) and TAC (2.87 ± 0.14 mg TE/g DW) compared to the other selected cucurbit seeds. Meanwhile, seeds of ash gourd had the highest TFC (5.60 ± 0.27 mg RE/g DW). Snake gourd seeds had the highest moisture content (88.92 ± 1.93 %), while seeds of ash gourd had the highest crude ash content (5.18 ± 0.25%). Pumpkin had the highest crude fat content (19.75 ± 1.92 %), while cucumber seed had the highest crude protein content (35.60 ± 0.27). Additionally, cucurbit seeds were found to be rich in K (8,632 mg/ Kg), Mg (3,997 mg/ Kg), Ca (1,369.25 mg/ Kg) and Na (156.25 mg/ Kg). In conclusion, the tested cucurbit species' seeds could be effectively used as nourishing healthy snacks and for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(3), 83-86. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-3-3
Pub. Date: October 12, 2023
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Agronomic Value of Composts Made from Fecal Sludge and Household Waste and Effect on Maize Production in Dschang (West Cameroon)
Original Research
Managing fecal sludge waste is crucial to prevent potential environmental harm, and one promising approach is its transformation into organic soil amendments. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of compost derived from various organic waste sources and assess its impact on soil fertility, maize growth, yield, and economic viability. Four distinct compost types were generated using two primary organic waste sources: household solid waste (C1) and fecal sludge (FS) combined with solid household waste (SHW) in different proportions (C2, C3, and C4). These composts were then applied at varying rates to maize plots in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, resulting in ten treatment groups. The findings revealed a progressive improvement in the physico-chemical properties of the composts from C1 to C4. Notably, phosphorus (P) content increased from 0.29±0.03 (C1) to 0.54±0.07 (C4), and the pH levels shifted from 7.72±0.61 (C2) to 8.00±0.57 (C1). Total nitrogen (TN) ranged between 1.08±0.01 (C1) and 1.23±0.02% (C4). All compost types positively influenced soil parameters. However, the application of 20 t.ha-1 of C1 resulted in greater above-ground biomass (48.23±12.64 t.ha-1), while the application of 20 t.ha-1 of C3 yielded the tallest maize plants (195.88± 7.35cm). Notably, compost C4 at a rate of 10 t.ha-1 exhibited the highest maize production and economic returns (7.95±0.26 t.ha-1, BCR = 2.81). In summary, treatment T7 (10 t.ha-1 of C4 compost) is recommended for achieving enhanced maize production and increased profitability. This study underscores the potential benefits of using organic composts, particularly those derived from fecal sludge and household waste, to enhance soil quality and crop yields in agricultural contexts.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(3), 72-82. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-3-2
Pub. Date: September 19, 2023
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Functional Properties of Essential Oils Distilled from Areal Parts of Mandarin Varieties (Citrus reticulata Blanco.)
Original Research
Essential oil extracted from mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) (Rutaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. However, the use of citrus leaf oil is not well established, and information is lacking. This study aimed to quantify the yield of essential oil content and evaluate the functional properties of essential oil extracted from immature and mature leaves of five different mandarin varieties (Indu, Heennaran, Madhu, Juicy and Rahangala) grown in Sri Lanka. The essential oil was distilled using Clevenger-type apparatus. Quantification of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were carried out by using the modified Floin-Ciocalteu method, colourimetric method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. The results revealed that all tested leaf essential oil of mandarin varieties contained marked amounts of essential oil content and TPC, TFC, and TAC. Significantly highest TPC (69.80 ± 5.14 mg GAE/g DW), TFC (265.08 ± 7.95 mg RE/ g DW), TAC (87.70 ± 4.02 mg TE/ g DW) and essential oil content (1.89 ± 0.19 mL/ 100 g DW) were observed in the Indu mandarin variety. Moreover, there were positive correlations of TAC with TPC (R2 = 0.8822) and TFC (R2 = 0.4004). The greater availability of bioactive compounds in C. reticulata leaf essential oil highlighted that the essential oil of mandarin is a potential source of valuable components. This research highlights the promising potential of utilizing the leaf essential oil of C. reticulata as a rich source of these beneficial components in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(3), 68-71. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-3-1
Pub. Date: August 11, 2023
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