Volume 11, Issue 2

Efficacy of Biofertilizers and Farmyard Manure in Management of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) and Yield of Potato
Original Research
Seed potato with latent infection of Phytophthora infestans is implicated in the initiation and transmission of late blight early in cropping seasons. The disease is managed by extensive use of fungicides that has led to emergence of fungicide resistant strains resulting in chemical ineffectiveness and increased cost of late blight management. Biological agents offer a sustainable alternative in managing potato late blight. Field experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of Biofertilizers (Trichoderma asperellum and Bacillus subtilis) and farm yard manure (FYM) on management of late blight in potatoes. Biofertilizers were applied through seed treatment and foliar applications. Some seed tubers were pre-treated with Trichoderma asperellum and Bacillus subtilis (1.0 × 107 CFU/mL) while others planted without any treatment and later on sprayed with the same concentration. FYM was applied two weeks prior to planting and incorporated into soil at the rate of 30 tons ha-1. The susceptible variety of late blight (Shangi) was used. Result showed that FYM + Trichoderma asperellum and FYM + Bacillus subtilis were not significantly different (P≤0.05) in reduction of disease severity by 72.95% and 72.23%, and disease incidences by 74.12%, and 72. 23% while increased yields by 63.18% and 62.38%, respectively. In addition, the treatment combinations had lowest tuber infection of 12.24% and 14.60%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. The highest disease severity, incidence, tuber infection and lowest yield was observed on untreated and farmyard manure (FYM) only. Similarly, the results revealed that spraying and soaking methods were significantly different in yield and late blight severity. The yield was increased by 42% in treatments associated with the soaking method compared to the spraying method. The spraying method reduced disease severity by 11.42% leading to a 12.36% higher yield than the soaking method. The results suggest that seed treatment by spraying of Trichoderma asperellum and Bacillus subtilis and application of farmyard manure can manage to reduce late blight on potatoes while improving yield.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(2), 59-67. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-2-4
Pub. Date: July 27, 2023
Functional Properties and Physicochemical Composition of Different Leaf Positions of Soft and Firm Flesh Trees of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae)
Original Research
The present study was undertaken to determine the functional properties and physicochemical composition of different leaf positions (Leaf bud, first leaf, second leaf, third leaf and fourth leaf) of soft (Wela) and firm (Waraka) flesh trees of jackfruit. Physicochemical composition, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC.) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined using the official AOAC method, Folin-Ciocalteu method, colourimetric method and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay respectively. Among the leaf bud and leaf blades, significantly highest TPC, TFC, and TAC. were observed in the second leaf blade of the soft flesh type, whereas the significantly highest TPC, TFC. and TAC. were recorded in the first leaf blade of the firm flesh type. Among the leaf petioles, significantly highest TPC, TFC. and TAC were observed in the fourth petiole of the soft flesh type, whereas, in the firm flesh type, the second petiole had significantly highest TPC, TFC. and TAC. However, the soft flesh type had more bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity compared to the firm flesh type. Higher crude protein content was observed in leaf buds, whereas higher moisture and ash content were observed in leaf petioles in both types. According to the results, it could be concluded that all the tested leaf positions of both A. heterophyllous types contained significant amounts of TPC, TFC, and TAC, which can be effectively used for traditional or folk systems of medicine and pharmaceutical industries.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(2), 54-58. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-2-3
Pub. Date: July 11, 2023
Identification and Description of Culturable Airborne Bacteria Suspended in Aerosols from the Milking Area in Two Dairy Farms in Puerto Rico by Using MALDI-TOF MS
Original Research
Due to its nutritional value and physicochemical characteristics, milk is susceptible to detrimental and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the dairy industry needs to control the factors that pose risks to the safety and quality of the product. Thus, a microbiological analysis of the air was carried out in the milking area of two dairy farms in Puerto Rico. Triplicate air samples were collected from May to September 2021. The results showed that farm B had higher bacteria concentrations in most months. Sixty-three genera of bacteria were identified among all the samples collected from both farms using MALDI-TOF MS. Additionally, several important sanitary bacteria were detected in the samples, albeit at a low frequency. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that the concentration of microorganisms in the air of milking areas can be influenced by different factors, such as the location of the farm, as well as temperature and relative humidity. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a helpful and fast technique for identifying the isolated bacteria in the samples.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(2), 44-53. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-2-2
Pub. Date: May 30, 2023
Electric Generation Capacities of Three Varieties of Banana Peel Using Microbial Fuel Cell
Original Research
Agricultural waste can be a viable energy source to generate electricity through a microbial fuel cell. Subsequently, banana peels are a widely available agricultural waste that can be utilized to generate electricity through a microbial fuel cell. In this study, an innovative method was adopted to generate bioelectricity from the three varieties of banana peels by using a microbial fuel cell (MFC). This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the electric generation capacities and dissipation rates of the three varieties of banana peels using microbial fuel cells. The microbial fuel cell's electric generation capacities and dissipation rates were measured for seven days. One-way ANOVA was utilized to ascertain the significant difference in the electric generation capacities and dissipation rates of the three varieties of banana peels. Results showed that all banana peels produced electricity in slightly different amounts. On average, Lakatan has a voltage and current of 113.841 mV and 134.543 μA, Latundan has a voltage and current of 152.521 mV and 145.43 μA, Saba has a voltage and current of 247.8229 mV and 395.986 μA. Overall, ANOVA revealed that there is a significant difference in the electric generation capacities in terms of voltage and current. However, there is no significant difference in the dissipation rates of the three varieties of banana peels. The study concludes that the Saba peels could be a potential feedstock for MFCs due to their high electric generation capacity and low dissipation rate compared to other varieties of banana peels. However, further studies are needed to optimize the MFC parameters for electricity generation, such as varying set-up sizes of the chambers, salt bridges, and chemical contents of the substrate.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(2), 39-43. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-2-1
Pub. Date: May 24, 2023