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Volume 11, Issue 1

Assessment of Mycorrhizal Fungi Efficiency on Acacia’s Growth Performance under Water Stress
Original Research
To assess mycorrhizal fungi efficiency on Acacia growth performance under water shortage condition, three leguminous plant species (Acacia tortilis, Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia gerrardii) were selected under greenhouse conditions in washed soil. The mycorrhizal fungal colonization was used to enhance plants growth under water deficit. Three watering levels; 85%, 75%, 50% and 25% of Field Capacity (FC) in the presence of Mycorrhizal and non-Mycorrhizal applied on grown trees for 5 months. This treatment impact on the plants was assessed by comparing plants heights, number of leaves shoot, root fresh, dry weight and Relative Growth Rate (RGR), and by measuring mycorrhizal colonization percentage and intensities. The results indicated that Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) significantly increased colonization percentage irrespective of acacia species. The maximum of root colonization percentage obtained at 75 % FC. Greater mycelium infection was observed at A. tortilis, A. gerrardii and A. ehrenbergiana (88.1%, 87.4%, and 86.4% respectively) at FC 75%, while the mycelium infection decreased at FC 25% at all species. The maximum vesicles were found with A. ehrenbergiana, A. gerrardii and A. tortilis (85.3%, 73.2%, and 53.5% respectively) at 75% FC, while the highest infection of Arbuscular (33.6%) was recorded with A. ehrenbergiana under 75% FC. Colonization intensity % significantly affect A. gerrardii registered highest mycelium intensity (66.3%) amended with 75% FC. The greater vesicles infection (62.6%) recorded with A. ehrenbergiana at the same FC, while maximum Arbuscular density (35.7%) with A. ehrenbergiana under 75% FC. Irrespective of Acacia species mycorrhizal fungi significantly enhanced the trees growth (plant height, leaves, shoot and root fresh weight, shoot dry weight and RGR) at 75% FC.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(1), 30-38. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-1-5
Pub. Date: March 26, 2023
1482 Views3 Downloads
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Combined with Mineral Fertilizer Improved the Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivated in the Western Highlands of Cameroon
Original Research
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial for plant growth and development by facilitating the absorption of water and minerals from the soil. Symbiotic relationship between AMF fungi and plant roots is of paramount importance and could reduce crop production dependence on fertilizers. Nutrient deficiency in the soils of the western highlands of Cameroon especially N and P is a limiting factor to grain-filling in cereals. This study sought to investigate the effect of AMF combined with different levels of mineral fertilizer on the growth, root colonization and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design arranged in split-plots using two varieties (Irad 1and Irad 2) and five treatments: control, F100%, AMF, AMF+F50% and AMF+F25% repeated three times. Results showed that all traits were significantly affected by treatments, except the plant height and spike length. Sole AMF treatment or in combination with low level fertilization (AMF+F25%) indicated better results for dry aboveground biomass, intensity of root colonization and yield. Contrarily, increased fertilization levels (F100% and AMF+F50%) reduced biomass, intensity of colonization and yield. No significant difference was observed between AMF and AMF+F25% treatments as well as between the two wheat varieties. These results suggest that wheat inoculation with AMF can reduce or simply replace the use of mineral fertilizer in wheat production in the western highlands of Cameroon.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(1), 22-29. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-1-4
Pub. Date: March 24, 2023
669 Views3 Downloads
Effect of Different Watering Regimes on Morphological Parameters of Cashew Grafted Genotypes
Original Research
Water stress has a strong influence on the physiological functions of tree crops which adversely affects the growth and yield of tree plants. Drought and soil fertility are the major factors that influence seedling survival and growth in arid areas, thus it is of paramount importance to establish optimum water requirements for tree seedlings in order to promote growth. In line with this, an investigation was carried out to assess early growth behaviours of Anacardium occidentale when exposed to varied watering intervals in the greenhouse. Two month old grafted seedlings were used for the study in 1.08 liter plastic pots containing 2 kg of potting soil. Seedlings were exposed to five different watering intervals (every two days, every four days, every six days, every eight days and ten days) and 80 mL of water was administered per each seedling based on the watering frequency for two months. Six seedlings were allocated per watering frequency and replicated 4 times in a Split-plot design. The result revealed a significant effect of irrigation frequency on seedlings growth of Anacardium occidentale where seedlings that received water every two days and every four days produced highest growth in the variables measured. Administering 80 mL of water per seedling every two days and every four days improved growth of A. occidentale in the nursery.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(1), 16-21. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-1-3
Pub. Date: March 15, 2023
1108 Views4 Downloads
Fungal Pathogens Affecting the Quality of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seed in Selected Agro-ecological Zones of Liberia
Original Research
The study aimed to investigate the presence and characterization of fungal pathogens in rice grains collected from four major rice producing counties in Liberia. Samples were collected from rice farmers in Bong, Lofa, Montserrado, and Nimba Counties during the dry season and taken to a laboratory in Kenya for isolation and characterization of fungal colonies. The results showed that Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp were the most abundant fungal isolates found in the rice grains. The most abundant fungal isolate was Aspergillus niger, followed by A. flavus and Penicillium spp. The study showed that the extensive presence of these fungi in rice grains is favored by warm and humid subtropical climates similar to Liberia, which can encourage conditions for fungal contamination. Other fungi found were Fusarium spp and Pyricularia oryzae. The findings of this study highlight the importance of controlling fungal contamination in stored rice grains to ensure food safety and security.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(1), 8-15. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-1-2
Pub. Date: March 03, 2023
1013 Views13 Downloads
Demography and Feeding Damage of Two Pest Insects on Tolerant and Susceptible Genotypes of the Bottle Gourd Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley (Cucurbitaceae)
Original Research
The demographical traits and damage from two pest insects (Asbecesta cyanipennis and Lamprocopa occidentalis) feeding on the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) were assessed on farm in Manfla (Center Ivory Coast). Two accessions (tolerant and susceptible) were observed in monoculture and in intercropping, during the first cropping season of 2018. The insect main development stages, the extent of plant organ attacks, and yield components of the cucurbit were assessed. Results indicated that L. occidentalis accomplishes its life cycle on bottle gourd, suggesting that the insect satisfies both its reproductive and food needs on this plant. A. cyanipennis whose eggs and larvae have not been observed on bottle gourd, appeared as an opportunistic herbivorous on this plant. Both insects feed on all parts of the bottle gourd (leaf, flower, and fruit), with up to 50% damaged leaves, depending on accession type, plant growth stage, and cropping system. Foliar damage caused by the studied insects was greater on the susceptible accession, particularly at the tendril stage and in monoculture. The control of L. occidentalis is thus a challenge for sustainable protection of bottle gourd against pest insects. To address this challenge, intercropping could give satisfactory results in terms of leaf damage reduction and yield gain.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2023, 11(1), 1-7. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-11-1-1
Pub. Date: February 15, 2023
1414 Views3 Downloads