World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017, 5(6), 292-298
DOI: 10.12691/WJAR-5-6-2
Original Research

Assessment of Maize (Zea mays L.) Exserohium Turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Sugg. Isolates on Different Culture Media in Tanzania

Nwanosike M. R. O.1, and Mabagala R. B.2

1Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Crop Science and Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania

Pub. Date: November 25, 2017

Cite this paper

Nwanosike M. R. O. and Mabagala R. B.. Assessment of Maize (Zea mays L.) Exserohium Turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Sugg. Isolates on Different Culture Media in Tanzania. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017; 5(6):292-298. doi: 10.12691/WJAR-5-6-2


Morphological characteristics of twenty five isolates of E. turcicum collected from Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Morogoro, Iringa, Njombe and Mbeya Regions in Tanzania were studied in four solid media namely; V8 vegetable juice agar, malt extract agar, maize leaf extract agar and potato dextrose agar. The experiment was conducted twice and replicated three times (3 replicate × 25 isolates × 4 media) for each medium, making a total of 300 plates. The inoculated cultures were arranged in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and incubated at 25±1°C. The statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in colony growth, conidia germination, dry mycelial weight and rate of sporulation on the four solid media indicated the possibility of different strains of E. turcicum in the studied areas. However, colony growth was aggressive in V8 juice agar (5.7 cm) but conidia germination and rate of sporulation were high in malt extract agar. No isolate of E. turcicum germinated or sporulated on PDA. Isolates such as KHK10, KHK18, KHN17, KHN3, KMM18 (Kilimanjaro Region), MMU13 and MRI4 (Mbeya Region), INM8 (Iringa Region) and MMM18 from Morogoro Region significantly yielded more colony growth, conidial germination, sporulation and dry mycelia compared to the other isolates. Molecular studies are needed to confirm the genetic variations amongst the isolates for sustainable maize breeding in Morogoro, Tanzania.


Northern leaf blight, solid medium, Isolates, maize, Tanzania


Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Frederiksen, R. A. (1991). Compedium of Sorghum Diseases. American Phytopatholgy Society, St. Paul. 82pp.
[2]  Carson, M. L. and Dyke Van, C. G. (1994). Effect of light and temperature on expression of partial resistance of maize to Exserohilum turcicum. Plant Diseases, 78: 519-522.
[3]  Juliana, B. O., Marco, O. G. and Luis, E. A. C. (2005). New resistance gene in Zea mays- Exserohilum turcicum pathosystem. Gentics and molecular Biology, 28 (3): 435-439.
[4]  Pataky, J. K. and Ledencan, T. (2006). Resistance conferred by the Ht1 gene in sweet corn infected by mixture of virulent Exserohilum turcicum. Plant Diseases, 90: 771-776.
[5]  Lutrell, E. S. (1958). The perfect stage of Helminthosporium turcicum. Phytopathology, 48: 281-287.
[6]  Ramathani, I., Biruma, M., Martin, T., Dixelius, C. and Okori, P. (2011). Disease severity, incidence and races of Setosphaeria turcica on Sorghum in Uganda. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 131: 383-392.
[7]  Leonard, K. J. and Suggs, E. G. (1974). Setosphaeria prolata is the ascigenous state of Exserohilum prolata. Mycologia, 66: 181-297.
[8]  Harlapur, S. I. (2005). Epidemiology and management of turcicum leaf blight of maize caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Agric.Sci., Dharwad, (India).
[9]  Degefu, Y. (2003). Cloning and characterisation of xylanase genes from phytopathogenic fungi with a special reference to Helminthosporium turcicum, the cause of northern leaf blight of maize. Academic Dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, September 19, 2003, Helsinki, Finland.85p.
[10]  Shurtleff, M. C. (1980). Compedium of Corn Diseases. American phytopathology society, St, paul, MN.
[11]  Ellis, M. B. (1971). Dermataceous hyphomycetes. Commonwealth mycological Institute, Kew, Surry. 608pp.
[12]  Drechsler, C. (1923). Some graminicolous species of Helminthosporum. Journal of Agricultural Research, 24: 641-739.
[13]  Boriquet, G. (1946). Les maladies des plantes cutivees amadagascar, Paris, Paul Lechavalier.
[14]  Saccas, A. M. (1954). Les champignons parasites des sorghos (Sorghum vulgare) et des penicilliaires (pennisetum typhoides en Afrique Equatoriale rancaise. Agron. Trop. Nogent 9: 135-173, 263-301, 647-686.
[15]  Keneth, R. (1958). Contribution to the knowledge of helminthosporium flora on gramineae in Israel. Bulletin of Research Council Israel, Sec D, Botany, 6:191-210.
[16]  Tarr, S. A. J. (1962). Disease of sorghum, Sudan grass and broom corn. Commonwealth.
[17]  Ullstrup, A. J. (1966). Corn diseases in the United States and their control. Agriculture Handbook No. 199, United States, Department of Agriculture. pp.26.
[18]  Chiang, M. Y., Van dyke, C. G. and Leonard, K. J. (1989). Evaluation of endemic foliar fundi for potential biological control of Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense): Screening and host range tests. Plant Disease, 73:459-464.
[19]  Mazzani, C., Garrido, M. J. and Rangel, E. (1997). Occurrence of Exserohilum turcicum on sorghum, Johnson-grass and Sudan grass in Maracay, Venezuela. Fitopatologia Venezolana, 10: 23.
[20]  Harlapur, S. I., Kulkarni, M. S., Wali, M. C., Patil, B. C., Kulkarni, S. and Hugde, Y. (2007a). Saccharum arundinaceaum- A new report of alternative host of turcicum leaf blight of maize. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science, 20(4): 867-868.
[21]  Pannar Seeds, (2009). Maize diseases: northern corn leaf blight. NCLB Fact Sheet, Version 1. []site visited on 12 March, 2011.
[22]  Muiru, W. M., Mutitu, E. W. and Kimenju, J. W. (2007). Reactions of some Kenyan maize genotype to turcicum leaf blight under greenhouse and field conditions. Asian Journal Plant Science, 6: 1190-1196.
[23]  Yongshan, F., Jifang, M., Xiumei, G., Xinlong, A., Shuqin, S. and Jingao, D. (2007). Distribution of mating types and genetic diversity induced by sexual recombination in Setosphaeria turcica in northern China. Higher Education Press and Sprinfer –Verlag, 1 (4): 368-376.
[24]  Muiru, W. M., Koopmann, B., Tiedemann, A. V., Mutitu, E. W. and Kimenju, A. (2010). Race typing and evaluation of aggressiveness of E. turcicum isolates of Kenya, German and Austrian origin. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(3): 277-284.
[25]  Levy, Y. (1991). Variation in fitness among field isolates of Exserohilum turcicum in Israel. Plant Disease, 75: 163-166.
[26]  Harlapur, S. I.; Kulkarni, M. S., Hedge, Y. and Kaikarni, S. (2007b). Variability in Exserohilum turcicum (Pass) leonard Suggs, causal agent of turcicum leaf blight of maize. Karnatakar Journal of Agric. Research, 20 (3): 665-666.
[27]  Knox-Davies, P. S. and Dickson, J. G. (1960). Cytology of Helminthosporium turcicum andits ascigerous stage, Trichometasphaeria turcica. American Journal of Botany, 47: 328-339.
[28]  Yin, S., Wang, Q., Yang, J., Jim, D., Wang, F., Wang, B. and Zhang, J. (2003). Fine mapping of the Ht2 (Helminthosporium turcicum resistance 2) gene in maize. Chinese Science Bulletin, 48(2):165-169.
[29]  Okori, P. (2004). Population studies of Cercospora zeae-maydis and related cercospora fungi Plant biology and Forest genetics department, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala.
[30]  Pandurangegowda, K. T., Shetty, H. S., Jayaramegowda, G. and Sangamlal, F. (1993). Incidence of turcicum leaf blight of maize in southern Karnataka. Current Research, 22: 100-101.
[31]  Freymark, P. J., Lee, M., Martinson, C. A. and Woodman, W. L. (1994). Molecular marker facilitated investigation of host plant response of E. turcicum in maize (Zea mays L.). Theor. Applied Genetics, 88: 305-313.
[32]  Pratt, R. Gordon, S., Lipps, P., Asea, G., Bigirwa, G. and Pixley, K. (2003). Use of IPM in the control of multiple diseases in maize: strategies for selection of host resistance. African Crop Science Journal, 2 (3): 189-198.
[33]  Kinyua, Z. M. (2004). Genetic structure, virulence characteristics and survival of Cercospora populations causing maize grey leaf spot in Kenya. Ph.D. Thesis, Royal Holloway University of London.
[34]  Ogliari, J. B., Gumaraes, M. A. and Geraldi, I. O. (2005). New genes in the Zea mays – Exserohilum turcicum pathosystem. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 28: 435-439.
[35]  Welz, H. G. and Geiger, H. H. (2000). Genes for resistance to northern corn leaf blight in diverse maize populations. Plant Breeding, 119: 1.
[36]  Singh, R., Mani, V. P., koranga, K. S., Bisht, G.S., Khandelwal, R. S., Bhandari, P. and Pan, S. K. (2004). Identification of additional source of resistance to E. turcicum in maize (Zea mays L.). Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics., 36:45-47.
[37]  Nwanosike, M. R. O. (2016). Variability, epidemiology and yield loss caused by northern leaf blight of maize in Tanzania. PhD Thesis, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.
[38]  Wortmann, C. S. and Eledu, C. A. (1999). Uganda’s agro-ecological zones: A guide for policy makers. Uganda; CIAT Kampala.
[39]  Ebiyua, J. and Oryokot, O. E. (2001). Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench, Agriculture in Uganda. Volume 11. Crops: National agricultural research organization fountain publications.
[40]  Aden, M. H. (1991).Studies of sorghum leaf blight incited by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leo. And Suggs. MSc. Thesis, Ahdhra Pradesh Agricultural University, India, p87.
[41]  Jones, D. G. and Clifford, B. C. (1983). Cereal DISEASES their Pathology and Control. 2nd ed. John Wiley and sons. pp 62-63.
[42]  Chang, H. G. and Fan, K. C. (1986). Comparative studies on some biology and pathogen of corn and broom corn isolates of Exserohilum turcicum (Pass) Leonard and Suggs. Botany bulletin of Academia Sinica, 27: 209-218.
[43]  Joshi, L. M. I., Goel, L. B. and Renfro, B. L. (1969). Multiplication of inoculum of Helminthosporium turcicum on sorghum seeds. Indian Phytopathology, 22: 146-148.
[44]  Adipala, E., Lipps, P. E. and Madden, L. V. (1993). Occurrence of Exserohilum turcicum on maize in Uganda. Plant Diseases 77: 202-205.
[45]  Gowda K.T.P, Mallikarjuna N, Kumar G.B.S, Manjunath B, Kumar,B.R. (2010). Cultural and morphological variation in the isolates of Exserohilum turcicum the incitant of Turcicum leaf blight in maize. Environment and Ecology. 28: 3A.1826-1830.
[46]  Robert, A. L. (1960). Physiological specialisation in Helminthosporium turcicum. Phytopathology, 50: 217-220.
[47]  Sisterna, M. N. (1985). Study on the pathogenicity of Exserohilum turcicum in Argentina. Revista de la Facultadde Agronomia, 61: 169-174.
[48]  Adipala, E. (1994). Reactions of maize genotypes to Exserohilum turcicum in different agroclimatic zones of Uganda. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 59: 213-218.
[49]  Muiru, W. M., Mutitu, E. W. and Kimenju, J. W. (2008). Distribution of Turcicum leaf blight of maize in Kenya and cultural variability of its causal agent, Exserohilum turcicum. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biochemistry, 4 (1): 32-39.
[50]  Pedersen W.L. and Brandenburg L.J. (1986).Mating types, virulence, and cultural characteristics of Exserohilum turcicum race 2. Plant Disease. 70: 290-292.
[51]  Daniel Abebe and Narong Singburaudom (2006). Morphological, Cultural and Pathogenicity variation of Exserohilum turcicum (Pass) Leonard and Suggs Isolates in Maize (Zea Mays L.) Kasetsart Journal (Nat. Sci.). 40: 341-352.
[52]  Nwanosike, M. R. O., Mabagala, R. B. and Kusolwa, P. M. (2015b). Disease intensity and distribution of Exserohilum turcicum incitant of northern leaf blight of maize (Zea mays L.) in Tanzania. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 3(5): 1-13.