Volume 8, Issue 3, 2020

Machine Crop Parameters’ Model of Spike - Tooth Thresher for Soybean
Original Research
The goal of regular modification of threshing machine is to increase soybean processing efficiency. This study was carried out to deconstruct the thresher’s parameter - output relationship and to evolve a model for such relationship at the Engineering workshop of the Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. Unthreshed soybeans, CGX14x1448 were used to evaluate the performance of a modified spike tooth thresher fabricated at the Workshop. The summary statistics of the machine output showed that concave clearance had percentage unthreshed soybean of 16.98%, percentage mechanically damaged seed of 8.625%, blown seed of 23.403kg and high seed loss of 44.241kg. Both the mean cleaning efficiency (94.175) and threshing efficiency (83.022) were very high. The trend of the cylinder speed however contrasts with those of concave clearance and moisture content. The percentage unthreshed (83.212%), percentage mechanical damage (16.792%) were in contrast to each other. Similarly, the threshing (44.108) and cleaning (23.321) efficiency were low. The relationships between cylinder speed and machine output showed an increasing trends for blown seed, percentage damaged seed and seed loss. Concave clearance - threshing efficiency can be predicted using 3 most parsimonious models (xy-inverse, exponential and simple linear model). High adjusted coefficients of determinations (R2) were obtained for the best model of cylinder speed - threshing efficiency model. These were 0.9997 for the xy inverse and 0.9998 for quadratic 0.993 for exponential model with estimation variance of 0.00047 (quadratic), 0.000 for inverse xy and 0.000191 (exponential model). The practical application of the models is in the specificity of the measurement of the relationship between thresher’s parameters and output.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(3), 97-104. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-3-5
Pub. Date: July 22, 2020
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Genetic Associations under Aphids and Rosette Stress in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Original Research
Groundnut production is largely constrained by biotic stresses with groundnut rosette virus disease seriously contributing to losses in yield in Nigeria and sub Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to understand performances and correlations between aphid resistance, rosette resistance and other quantitative characters. Two aphid resistance, one rosette resistance, one aphid susceptible and one rosette susceptible lines were used as parents to develop F1s, F2s, BC1P1 and BC1P2. The seventeen generations obtained were evaluated along with three checks in three replications using randomized complete block design. The F1 generations had higher mean performance compared to the parents suggesting heterosis. The segregating generations (F2s, BC1P1 and BC1P2) had mean values higher or lower than the parents due to transgressive genes. The genotypic correlation coefficients in contrasting magnitudes and directions exceeded those of the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients for most of the character pairs indicating that the correlations were more genetic than environmental in the three sets of crosses studied.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(3), 89-96. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-3-4
Pub. Date: July 20, 2020
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Compositional Analysis of Volatile Compounds of Paspangiri - A Mixture of Leaves of Five Rutaceae Plants Used as an Effective Remedy for Respiratory System Microbial Infections in Traditional Systems of Medicine
Original Research
Steaming with aromatic poly herbal formulations has been practiced as an effective treatment for curing or controlling infectious diseases, deterring of pest species, destroying of unwanted microbial contaminations by several cultures. Steaming of Pasppangiri, a mixture of leaves of five species (Citrus aurantiumLinn, Citrus aurantifolia(Christm. & Panzer) Swingle, Citrus sinensisLinn, Atlantia ceylanica(Am.) Oliver, Citrus reticulata Blanco) has been used for an effective treatment for curing of microbial infected, respiratory system related diseases. However, information on volatile compounds, compositional analysis of Paspangiri is lacking or scattered. Leaves of five citrus species were collected from previously authenticated plants grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Essential oil was separated by hydro distillation method. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Paspangiri was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results revealed that the number of compounds observed in each species were varied as Citrus sinensis (27)>aurantium(25) >Citrus reticulata(20)>Citrus aurantifolia(19)>Atlantia ceylanica (5) respectively. The major bioactive molecules identified in essential oils of Paspangiri such as linalool, limonene, caryophyllene, eugenol, z-citral, ∞- pinene, sabinene, and myrcene, either singularly or as a mixture have been exhibited antimicrobial properties. Therefore, the present study, partially validate the traditional claims of inhaling of Paspangiri steam for prevention or curing of infectious disease.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(3), 84-88. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-3-3
Pub. Date: July 02, 2020
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Identification, Determination and Quantification of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 and Its Effect on The Growth of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)
Original Research
Pseudomonas species have founded as greatest and potentially most promising group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 is an important PGPR isolated from oil palm rhizosphere. This rhizobacteria is likely to synthesize and release phytohormone indole-3 acetic acid (IAA). Production of IAA is one of the main reasons to promote plant growth and yield. The aim of this study was to detect, identify and quantify the IAA production by P. aeruginosa UPMP3 in vitro and its influence on oil palm seedling growth. Nutrient broth medium supplemented with 1-5 mg/ml L-tryptophan and without L- tryptophan were used for bacterial culture. The pH levels of culture media were optimized under shaken and static conditions and incubated at 28±2°C in different incubation periods. The production of IAA by P. aeruginosa UPMP3 was extracted, purified, detected and quantified by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses. Production of IAA was quantified by HPLC in liquid culture and achieved 12.08µg/ml with a retention time of 13.711 min. On the other hand, the maximum 52 µg/ml IAA was recorded in the medium supplemented with 4 mg/ml L- tryptophan in compare to control. The optimum pH level of the culture medium was recorded as 7 under shaken conditions at 150 rpm with 5 days incubation. The influence of IAA produced by the UPMP3 on oil palm seedling growth was carried out in the pot experiment. The germinated oil palm seedlings were treated with the extract of bacterial strain and observed a positive effect on seedling growth in respect to average root and leaf number, root, shoot, and leaf length compare to the synthetic IAA and the control.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(3), 75-83. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-3-2
Pub. Date: June 19, 2020
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Developmental Variation among Improved Coffee Hybrids Propagated through Somatic Embryogenesis
Original Research
A study was conducted to assess the response of improved coffee varieties to somatic embryogenesis and identify varieties that can be included in multiplication programme using this technique. Young fully expanded leaves from six varieties N39-1, N39-5, KP423-1, KP423-3, CVT1-2 and CVT2-1 planted at Lyamungu were surface sterilized for 30 minutes under agitation using calcium hypochlorite solution, cut in small explants approximately 1 cm2. Seven explants each were plated in 5 magenta jars (6.5cm diameter) per variety, cultured in Murashige Skoog medium with initiation additives (MS1) for 6 weeks, and embryonic callus development additives (MS2) for 6 months. The time required for callus induction was observed during the first six weeks. Callus formation continued to be monitored up to six months. Then callus weights were taken per jar and results expressed as percentage of the established average weight of calli per genotype, and were routinely managed afterwards. Each magenta jar was treated as a replication, allowing for RCD design, and individual weights were exposed to ANOVA using STAT statistical software. The results showed some difference in both callus formation time and callus weight among the genotypes tested, the latter being significant at P<0.05. Explants from varieties CVT1-2 and CVT2-1 were fastest developing (3 weeks) followed by KP423-3 and KP423-1 (4 weeks) while N39-1 was slowest (5 weeks). The highest mean weight and percentage of callus development was observed in explants obtained from variety KP423-3 (86.25%), KP423-1 (83.73%) followed by N39-3 (63.75%) and CVT1-2 (61.25%), while the least performers were N39-1 (46.25%) and CVT2-1 (43.75%). This study has shown that response to somatic embryogenesis differs with varieties, opening up avenue for future screening of the remaining 13 varieties. Varieties KP423-3 and KP423-1, with high percent callus per explant and average initiation time, are hereby recommended as pioneers for investors interested in massive somatic embryogenesis of Arabica coffee in Tanzania.
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(3), 70-74. DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-3-1
Pub. Date: June 03, 2020
1424 Views850 Downloads